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setting up resettlement camps in states such as Guerrero, Michoacán, Oaxaca, and Tamaulipas.7

The Cardenas Administration distrusted the United States and in 1937 asked Germany for help

with Mexico’s trade program and economic infrastructure. A German attaché arrived in Mexico

early that year and Germany began to have an active role in Mexico’s industrialization efforts.

Cardenas’ advisors felt that “Germany was the only country in the world, which, because of its

enormous needs for raw materials, could offer such as market and guarantee the total acquisition

of the Mexican surplus production.” 8 This relationship strengthened during the late

Cárdenas strongly believed in the importance of unifying the working class and openly

approved strikes. In an attempt to acquire better pay for México’s oil workers and create

national pride, President Cárdenas nationalized 17 United States owned oil companies in 1938.9

This relationship would change during México’s next presidential administration. President

Manuel Ávila Camacho came to office in 1940. As a more moderate reformer, President

Camacho focused on cutting government spending, privatization, and on a more moderate union

mentality. He wanted Mexicans to work together and help each other, as well as be less

dependent on the government.10 A strong believer of progress, Camacho established irrigation,

electrification, and public works projects throughout México. He instituted social entities such

as México’s social security system. He is most credited for his devotion to education. After

implementing a literacy program called “Each one, Teach one,” illiteracy dropped from 50 to 30

7 8 Himilce Novas, Everything You Need to Know About Latino History ( New York: Penguin Books Inc.,1998), 96. Friedrich E. Schuler, Mexico Between Hitler and Roosevelt: Mexican Foreign Relations in the Age of Lázaro Cárdenas, 1934-1940 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1998), 67-68. Michael C. Meyer, William L. Sherman, and Susan M. Deeds, The Course of Mexican History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 582. Michael C. Meyer, William L. Sherman, and Susan M. Deeds, The Course of Mexican History, 606. 9 10

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