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He explains that although the United States was México’s most important trading partner in

1934, President Cárdenas’ nationalistic agenda deeply impacted bilateral relations between the

two countries. Most importantly, Schuller’s work allows us to better understand what México

was experiencing during critical moments of history such as the Great Depression and the place

that it had in international politics.

Another author that examines the last years of the Cardenas administration and America’s

response to his policies is Stephen Niblo. In War, Diplomacy and Development: The United

States and México 1938-1954, Niblo discusses the presidential transition that made a better

relationship possible. He notes that although unresolved problems resulting from the

nationalization of the oil companies still existed in 1940, the United States and México opted to

compromise specifically because of the threat of war (Niblo, 52). Stephen Niblo also looks at

the relationship during México’s next presidential administration (1949-1946). He analyses

México’s entry to war in detail and allows us to realize México’s vast contribution to the war

effort. Niblo focuses on the impact made by President Manuel Ávila Camacho during his term

(1940-1946) and emphasizes that this new president worked hard to improve relations with the

United States.

Although Niblo gives us a concise account of the years prior and following World War II,

other researchers such as Maria Emilia Paz and Carmela Santoro, provide us with a detailed

description of México’s early support for the Axis, the reasons for their declaration of war,

México’s economic situation and Axis intelligence activities in México.

Paz’ work states that México was forced to declare war on the Axis on May 22, 1942,

after Germany bombed two of its oil tankers, Potrero del Llano (Colt of the Plains) and Faja de

Oro (Golden Belt) in the Gulf of México. Paz also looks into the intelligence operations of both

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