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the United States and Germany in México during the war. In Strategy, Security, and Spies:

México and the United States as Allies in World War II, Paz devotes two chapters to the

intelligence operations. She explains that several espionage agencies such as the Abwehr were

active in México.

Carmela Santoro’s dissertation titled, United States and Mexican Relations during World

War II, is the essential secondary source and it is considered to be the first book-length account

of the wartime relations between the United States and México. She explains how “two

countries, which had disagreed on many things in the past and had looked upon each other with

suspicion and distrust, formed and new partnership.” (Santoro, V) Her work provides us with a

general look at this topic, although she tends to focus on how the war affected México


In earlier years, books about this topic failed to give much attention to the existence of

the Mexican Fighter 201. Nonetheless, recent work has taken notice and at least two

publications (on this specific topic) exist. The most in-depth analysis is provided by William

Tudor in his Ph.D. dissertation (1997). He combines archival research with oral history and tells

us the story of the Mexican Fighter Squadron 201 and sheds new light on the extend of México’s

contributions to war. Tudor explains that with great encouragement from President Camacho,

the Mexican government evaluated a plan to provide troops for the war. Tudor follows the

squadron’s trail from México to the Philippines. Also known as las Aguilas Aztecas (the Aztec

Eagles), the squadron arrived in Manila Bay on April 30, 1945. Tudor provides a list of all 300

men that were part of the force and mission reports obtained from U.S. military records.

In a more current analysis, Stephen I. Schwab describes the role of the Mexican

Expeditionary Air Force as “limited but symbolically significant.” This article gathers

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