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of Inter-American Affairs was established under the direction of Nelson Rockefeller. The

Rockefeller family was well respected in Latin America for its many charity efforts and genuine

concern for the living conditions of these countries.

In the case of México, United States media flooded the country. Films, radio programs,

art, and music created more than wartime collaboration between these two countries; it became

an intellectual and cultural exchange. Radio programs often exerted support for Allied forces,

films often included bi-national characters, friendships, and love affairs, and music often talked

about the hardships of war. The most intensive campaign was launched via Mexico’s prominent

newspapers and magazines.

The United States also provided subsidies for all periodicals in Latin America that

supported the United States and the Allies. This pushed many newspapers to leave their

neutrality discourse and actively support the Allied to avoid paper rations implemented during

this time. Newspapers such as El Universal, Excélsior and magazines such as Hoy and Tiempo

reflected the new rhetoric with a new focus on war news and advertisements that called for the

Mexican people to become part of the war effort. Larger transitions in stories presented in these

newspapers happened from 1940 to 1943. In 1940, special Sunday editions focused primarily on

local, regional, or national headlines. By 1943, however, both papers featured international

reports. El Universal and Excélsior published a section in English. Commercial advertisements

also pushed for local products rather than those imported from Germany or Italy. Magazines

such as Hoy and Tiempo began to follow the writing styles of United States publications Life and

Time. These changes were enforced as early as 1941 and México had yet not entered World War


3 Michelle Nelson Miller, Red, White, and Green: The Maturing of Mexicanidad, 1940- 1946 (El Paso: Texas Western Press, 1998), 75-76.

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