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Self

Nurturing

Developing

Directive

Continuity

Relationships

Relationships

TALE Subscales

.25* .24*

106

BLUCK ET AL.

TABLE 5. Correlations Between the TALE Subscales and Overall Thinking and Talking About Life

Note. Only correlations of at least .40 are interpreted for validation purposes. *p < .008; **p < .001.

.16 .42**

.44** .21*

Overall frequency of

Thinking about life Talking about life

.35** .22*

talking about life. The Directive subscale and Developing Relation- ships subscale showed modest correlations with both thinking and talking about life. Thus, the use of each of the functions is somewhat correlated with one’s overall tendency to think or talk about the past. Beyond that, however, the results also offer preliminary validation for the relative public (talking) and private (thinking) relevance of the Nurturing Relationships and Self–continuity factors, respectively.

Convergent Validity of the TALE with the RFS. Simple correlations between the four subscales of the TALE and the subscales of the RFS are reported in Table 6. Only those correlations with alpha levels < .004 (Bonferroni correction) and effect sizes of at least .50 are interpreted.

The Directive subscale correlates with two RFS subscales. The highest correlation is between the TALE Directive subscale and the RFS Problem Solving subscale (.79). This high correlation was ex- pected and confirms the theoretical notion of a directive function that includes present problem solving (but is not completely duplica- tive of it). There also is a sizeable correlation between the TALE Di- rective subscale and the RFS Identity subscale (.63), which is not surprising. Items that assess the extent to which individuals engage in meaning making, or making sense of one’s self and life, seem to fit with the meaning of the RFS Identity subscale. Webster (1995) also found overlap between the directive (RFS Problem Solving) and self (RFS Identity) functions of remembering the past while developing the RFS.

The Self–continuity subscale correlates highly with the theoreti- cally similar RFS Identity subscale (.60), which suggests convergent validity for the TALE Self–continuity factor. Although not quite at

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