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Self Function


When something unexpected happens to me and I want to fit it into my view of my life.


When I have hurt somebody and I feel bad and I want to remind myself that I am basically still a good person.


When I am concerned about whether I am still the same type of person that I was earlier.


When I want to make myself feel better by talking to others who have had sim- ilar past experiences.


When I want to make someone else feel better by talking to them about my similar past experiences.

Q23 Q24 Q25 Q26 Q27 Q28

When I want to introduce myself to people or to tell others more about me. When I want to develop a closer relationship with someone. When I want to strengthen a friendship by sharing old memories with friends. When I hope to also learn more about that other person’s life. When I hope to also find out what that other person is like. When I want to help someone by telling them about my own past experiences.



TABLE 1. Theoretically Derived TALE Items for the Directive, Self, and Social Functions of AM

Social Function


In order to try to remember advice someone gave me because I don’t know what to do.


When I want to better understand my current problems.

Q17 Q18

When I want to understand who I am now.

When I want to reinterpret old events in the light of things that have happened since.

Q19 Q20

When I feel down and I want to make myself feel better. When something happens to me and I want to look back to see what caused it.

Q14 Q15 Q16

When I want to understand how I have changed from who I was before. When I want to see if my life has an overall theme.

When I am concerned about whether my beliefs or values have changed over time.

Item Q1

Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8

When I want to make plans for the future. When I think about my future goals. When I am facing a challenge and I want to give myself confidence. When I want to learn from my past mistakes. When I need to make a life choice and I am uncertain which path to take. When I am searching for a solution to a problem.

When I want to remember how others have reacted to me in the past in order to decide how to act now.

Directive Function

When I feel that if I think about something bad that happened I can learn some lesson from it.

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