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Brief Quote Usage and Textual Citations Lecture - page 3 / 4





3 / 4

Read "Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism" in Troyka, chapter 26.

A writer should integrate material from sources smoothly into his or her own words. Anyone can stick in a quotation, but it takes some skill to incorporate quotations, paraphrases, and other references into one's own writing without awkward gaps and jerks.

You should aim for a seamless texture as you move from your own analysis of your subject to the comments and ideas of others and back again to your own comments. There are techniques that can help you achieve a stylistic smoothness as you integrate source materials into your own writing.


In the following examples, borrowed from Cumbie's web site, the writer gracefully integrates her own words with the words from a secondary source by Anastasia Toufexis entitled, "Love: The Right Chemistry." Toufexis's essay presents a neurochemical perspective on love. Here are eight sample patterns of integration. Notice the parenthetical citation shows the page number from which the quotation came.

         At the beginning . . .

"Goofy grins and sweaty palms" are one physiological indication that we may be in love (Toufexis 166).

In the middle . . .

In her essay, Toufexis gives credit to a specific chemical, oxytocin, for "enhancing orgasms" which may certainly explain the physiological reaction in mating (167).

At the end . . .

Toufexis describes the effects of love as "goofy grins and sweaty palms" (166).

Divided by your own words . . .

"Lovers often claim that they feel as if they are being swept away," and research suggests that they are indeed "literally flooded by chemicals" (Toufexis 166).

Introduced with a colon . . .

As Toufexis notes, the criteria for a love match is learned in childhood and we put it all together as adults: "All the information gathered while growing up is imprinted in the brain's circuitry by adolescence. Partners never meet each and every requirement, but a significant number of matches can light up the wires" (168).

Introduced with a comma . . .

Love produces wonderful feelings, and as Fisher notes, "that is one reason why it feels so horrible when we're abandoned or a lover dies" (qtd. in Toufexis 167).

Introduced using that . . .

With true love, she argues that "age is not vital" (Toufexis167).

Introduced using As...said or As...suggests . . .

Love and nature seem to act in tandem, for as Walsh suggests, "nature has wired us for one special person" (qtd. in Toufexis 167). 

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