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Leung 4

al., 75-6). There continue to be Christians who reject medical care because of religious beliefs.

Human cadavers, a large component of today’s medical education that contributes much to

students’ understanding of the human body, were “abhorrent to both Muslim and Christian

sensibilities and, if not explicitly forbidden, was almost always out of the question” (Conrad, et.

al., 131). Education and research should not be limited by religious factors. Though religion may

have helped to create medicine (for example, from Judaic ideals of hospitality), I believe that

now, development of medicine should be independent of religious beliefs and influence.

The formalized training and hospitals in modern day medicine seem to arise from the

Islamic model (Conrad, et. al., 125). Competing ideals of formal study with a teacher, book

learning, experience and empirical observation, and logical skills and formal listening

synthesized to today’s medical tradition. However, the Islamic classical tradition of medical

education “concentrated on written texts,” and many students began practicing medicine without

having treated a patient in their education (Conrad, et. al., 131). Today’s first years of medical

school, whether Western or CTM, require memorizing dozens of books and the lectures of

professors, and later years of medical school, residency, and internship emphasize practical

experience while being supervised by an older doctor. Medical training is preceded by an

undergraduate degree that develops general rhetorical and logical skills. I agree with the

emphasis on a well-rounded education that does not solely focus on medicine, and then intensive

study and practice. One cannot be a doctor in any medical tradition without both book and

practical learning, and a long term of study. I believe strongly in written instruction, both in

textbooks and in lectures that are supported by textual references. As a result, I do not believe in

oral traditions. If a traditional was originally oral, it should be documented, checked, preserved,

and propagated in written format. Inherent any passing on of knowledge is the danger of the

Leung 4

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