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teacher’s interpretation being different from the original; this risk of passing on bias increases

tremendously with an exclusively oral tradition.

The creation of the medical compendium by the Arab-Islamic tradition, which to us now

seem less than innovative, allowed for not only the collecting of existing medical knowledge, but

also to “pursue its implications to their appropriate conclusions, fill in gaps, and so [be] broadly

authoritative works” (Conrad, et. al., 115,112). Training is not complete without practical

application of learned skills, not the short training period of Methodists but an extended

apprenticeship experience for those who choose to make a career of medicine. Historically, the

Arab-Islamic translation movement led to the “revival of Greek humoral medicine in an Arab-

Islamic context,” creating a formal vocabulary (Conrad, et. al., 108). The book learning is critical

to ensure that colleagues can communicate with each other regardless of what language they

speak. Today’s compendium should not solely be Western, but acknowledge other cultures as

well. In modern days, apprenticeship is not an efficient way of imparting knowledge: only a few

are taught in a specific tradition. Instead, the knowledge should be capable of being shared

around the world and synthesized into the medical tradition of different cultures. I do not believe

that practices are truly medical unless they can be taught to, and evaluated by others, whether

quantitatively or qualitatively.

Everyone should have a basic understanding of how medicine works, as promoted by the

Islamic ideal of “incorporat[ing] medical learning” (Conrad, et. al., 124). Because almost all

cultures have traditional medicine that they have learned from their family, people should able to

identify the helpful and dangerous elements of their tradition. For many, the home remedies they

learned are often the first recourse when they are ill. An appointment with a physician is made

only after this fails. Many combine the modern Western medical tradition of going to the doctor

Leung 5

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