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Land clearing Biomas disposal

Manual, chain saw, shear blade In-situ burning

Fertility maintenance

Cover crop, residue mulching, vegetative hedges, agroforestry, farmyard manure, cover crops, supplemental dose of N and P, rotations, kralling, organic ammendements, banding

Seedbed preparation, planting or erosion control measure (technology)

No till, Minimum till, vegetative hedges, sod seeding, contour ridges, tied ridges, early sowing with onset of rains, mulch farming, soil inversion in dry season, terracing, rough ploughing at end of rains, high seed rate, deep sowing, diggets/stone lines, water harvesting, supplemental irrigation, micro-catchments, ridge- furrow system, potholes, pre- or post-planting ridges

Operation

Converted from Lal 1993a

Sustainable Management Option

Chart 3: The broad definition and aspects of conservation tillage technology

% of cultivated land

Draught animal

Mechanical power

Human muscle power

power

20

40

40

84

12

4

10

20

70

80

14

6

15

30

55

Table 6: Sources of

power for primary land preparation

Country

Botswana Kenya South Africa Tanzania Zimbabwe Source: Ellis-Jones,

1997

in 5 SADC countries

Farmer management capabilities will remain an issue in gauging possible progress as conservation tillage systems call for higher levels of management and this has tended to contribute towards low adoption rates. Small-holder farmers own less than 5 ha of land in most countries in the region and because of this they do not want to risk crop failure by using technologies they are unfamiliar with, especially considering their labour and resource limitations.

2.6.2

Contil initiatives and efforts by nations in the ESA region

In Zambia the currently practised soil conservation measures include contour ridges and grass strips across the main slopes. The lack of effective enforcement laws after independence led to a complete collapse and abandonment of conservation measures particularly by smallholder farmers. The traditional CHITEMENE system of shifting cultivation also contributed to accelerated rates of soil erosion due to shorter fallow periods and longer cropping cycles caused by increased population pressures (Mukanda, 1993). Some research work on tied ridging has been undertaken at Lusitu Research Station with some encouraging results.

Nyagumbo (1998) summarized some of the Contil activities of selected countries in the ESA region:

The use of conservation tillage systems in Zambia has mainly been spearheaded in the last

16,

This paper is published in: Kaumbutho P G and Simalenga T E (eds), 1999. Conservation tillage with animal traction. A resource book of the

Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA). Harare. Zimbabwe. 173p. A publication supported by French Cooperation, Namibia. For details of ATNESA and its resource publications, see http://www.atnesa.org

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