Figure 1. The conservation tillage system
Natural factors can be visualized as:
History and trends,
Cultural complexities such as values, societal
and gender-based roles,
Weather and climate,
Topography and cover,
Soil type and distribution and
Other phenomena such as global warming.
Capacities can be visualized to be:
Role of people and their involvement,
Natural resources, their place and rights,
Land tenure, ownership and settlement,
Leadership and natural resource policy,
Legal base and establishment,
Dynamic capacity to adjust to and address changes within development trends and
Action and not reaction: where the tendency is to cure other than prevent environmental degradation.
Basement material, structure and texture, Microbial capacity, profile and cover, Manipulation and compaction dynamics as well as sitting operational condition, Erosion stability, penetration resistance and
water retention capacity and Tillage energy and other requirements.
Experience and information,
Training (formal and informal),
Technology quality and accessibility,
Research and extension and
Government and non-Governmental
institutional support including policy.
Management factors are such as:
Soil factors are such as:
This paper is published in: Kaumbutho P G and Simalenga T E (eds), 1999. Conservation tillage with animal traction. A resource book of the
Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA). Harare. Zimbabwe. 173p. A publication supported by French Cooperation, Namibia. For details of ATNESA and its resource publications, see http://www.atnesa.org