Errors wen: liso committed duri", planning for the sci:wn: of CistelTll iii UUOril. During this vlt.al phase the 3d Division's commmdcr. Maj.Gm. Lucian K. T1\I5COlt, mjUin:dthc: RangelS'mainattD folOe 10 move along .single infiltration rowe.(36) Reuusc of lhis element's size. however, the operation should have been conducted by bteal.ing into smaller units and inflitr.uing llong muhiplc routcs. 8y movint U I single body, the Itlack fOIOe minimi700 lheadv.matt
IId planned numerous kiLl1.oncs designed 10 en&agc
vnowucd enemy soId]en;. this qUC$l.ion was easily
rc.o;oivcd. SpccificaUy,cnpcemclll would OCClIt ....hen the maximum number or American lIoop!1 wen: within ,primlryengagcmentllU. ThiSi5pn:ciscly ....h.i1 the
Germans did UId, Regiment WIS futile eITon.
the 6(lISth Ran&er In I Mve yct
enhanced the probabililY of detcclion.
!hereby degrading lUI chances for succen.
with (lo,;rman pri:lonel'il of
Capt. Amltol )'1. Abali or/g/Mlly sul>mllled Ihls essay while alwuiin8 US. Army In/unrry Office.s' Ad.allu d Couru in Ikctmbtr 1990 (II Fort 8en,"nll.
war.It Is cle:uihat enemy dderdclll cuilydl;tccte4 the Rangers' tWO-Nnllion IUId: fo=- (37) Foiling the ;utxk, then:fon:, became. simplcquestion of when 10
....ay was act:Om XUlicd t1y aul/t'"
hue/or "nny His·
Americans. SiI"U the
I. Allied operations in Italy began on 9 ScpICmher 1943 with an amphibious assault on Salerno by the U.S. Fifth Army. including the 1st. 3d, and 4th Ranter Baltalions. At thallimc the three Ranter wcre nol formed under. provisional n:gimental head·
lIuartcl"S. Although 1-'. Col.
ill.:nlor IUnger officer, he did not h""e <m:raIl com· mand of the thn:e ban.alions. He commanded the lSi Baltation. while Lt.. Col. HcrmOll W. Dlommcr com· manded the 3d IJId Maj. Roy A. MUlTlIIy the 4th. William O. Darby and William 11.1l;wmer. 0tNby'$ HlJllltfs: We W doe WIlY (S;ut Rafael. Calir.: sldlo Ptcss, 1980). pp. 28, 32, 112. 2. Tllc Ciu5tav/Bcmlu.rd Line was .... defen sive polition l\UIIIing across lll11y rlQlT1 Cirtta 10 Or ton.a. 11 COI"I$imd of man-made ob:sbcles iIlId ronlfied positions, all t)f which had been cle....:rly lied into the
1tura! t>hIillClcIi of Italy's SOII1hc:m mounlaln ran8es.
l.. Sulzbc:rgcr, TIle Amf. icanllu/lage PU:llU"e His·
tory of World War II. ed. AmcriCOUl Heri1age zlne. vol. 2 (New York: American Heritage Publish Ing Co., 19(6), pp. 372-73. 388. 3. ElI:cpt as noted, wlL3t foUows-lncluding the
discllSSion lions, iIlId
of German commmd rclWonshI(l'. unit \ocII.ions-is bard primarily m
n:sponsible ft)r command of'l1 Gennan Anny units. all air ft)1Oe units assigned larw,1 mis:;ions. and the exe cution of all adminiSlrative and 5uppnn aclivities. A.my Group C did no!. German air and/or naval opentlions conducted wl1hln the Iialian 1lx:ater. ho....ever. IS ilris resporu;lbillty fell to Field Alben Kesselring. S. By late 1943 German rolOe levels ....ere barely suffoeienl 10 combat 11lIly's growing putisan ICIlvily and hold the Ciustlv Une. 6. In the of WI Allied amphibious lmding In lLaly, the onc WCSl (F1aIWX anti thc l.owI3llds), CinC Soulheast (Balhns), IIld HqI/QcetrWt/ Army com· mander were directed to mmbal troops and t(juipmcnllO the CinC SouthWCSl (llaly). with some n:infora:mc-nts kcp: rel(\y 10 m,reh on cighllO lwelve
hours' noti Ikalioo. 7. German inlelligence
CQ!I,isted of the mili_
taly·s air and 8round n:eonnlliSllll"U asscts. as informants localed throu ahoulliOUlhem h.lly. SOUIUS reveaLed the rollowing indicatOR :
well as T heSJe Allied
troops and ships a83Cmbling in the NapLes n:gion. Allied offcns.ive opcntiOflS along the Gusuv Une
dwtging rn;m anad..! to holding Jtlions, an:l an
War Dl:paruncnl, Mi1ilaly GUntOll Ope.alio« al "lIZi
Division, 1M "Sludy at GertnaJI
amphibious rehearsal $OUthem a:wl.
Ope.atiolu at W "lIZio 8eacMtadfrom 22 lall-, /OJI Mrs, 194f (Wasl!.ington., D.C.: U.S. WarOqw1_
Within the Italian lllcalcr "l"1li)' Group C was
activity within the Ciariglil/lO Riverarea,
13·17 Jm.l.lry. included Firth Army troops n:dcpLoy. ing south ofCas.<oIno; aniJIcry NtlCI"k5 moving IClUth
west to cover the Garil:iill1O.
at 1hcir new