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kations, and bcsinnina

and interdiClIM

missions; and Allied lir QlClS nyill8 llllmerous laCli.

til IOr1ics throughout the Gennans' GtrmaJI Opuatlorlat A....Io. Pr. 8-9.



Blumcruon. SaltrllO w ClWifW (Washington, D.C.: U.S, ArmyCcntcrofMilitary ..istory. 1969). pp, )15· 20. 9. German intelligence c$limales strongly iodiutoo

lila Allk<!

posscsse4lhe perwnnel. ('.(juipmcm,

and lift capability rtquired 10 conduct two operations In t major h r o u g h O l . 1 I t h e n l ' S l y e a r o r c o m N I o n t h e I t a l i U l peni!ll;ula, Gennan InteUlgcncc Cllperu continu.1lly wondered why Allied commanders never rully used this capability. GumtJtt Optrado" a, AmID, pp. ) ·1. 10. Uy the fiN week of r"Cbrull')'. the German$ had successfully countertd the Alli(d offensive within this S«1orand =stXllishcd theirposilicmaiongthcGu<llV Lil'll:.lbid.• p. 8; ;nI8lumcmon. Snlmoo IQ ClJSJillQ. pp.148·SI. 366-7l. 11 . Acroruing 10 captured German documents. the emergency dcpIoymc:III to the (jarigliano drama!lealIy reduced the sile and cap3.biIiliuofavailabledefensi ve IInils. Rome's remaining units were ballic fatigllCd lind IIOt fit for intense comN!. 12. \)Uring the Amio ope",tion the 66 ISth Ranger Infantry RegimC"nt (Provisional) was Itladlcd to the 3d Infantry Division. U.S. Army. Historical Division. AIU/o Btaclthta4: 21 JOI'UUlry-25 May 1944. Ameri. can Fom:s in Action Series,no. 14 (Washington. D.C.: U,S. War IXpartmcnt. 1947). pp. 5·1. I). $ou=s describi"¥ the Qrmans' initial ability 10 defend against the Allies' amphibioos opcnllion in·

chIde: A".io Btacllhtllll. pp. 11.20;


,ion 0/ AllJ"io. p. 11: Memo. Maj Goen Luclm K. T"'SI.lOII for Adjutant General, tS Mar44. sub: 111$· torieal Rocol\1, HQ VI Corps, Jan 44-The Mool1ling and Initial PNscsofOpc...tionSmNGLE, pp. 4.' : Mi.

ch3e1 J. King,


ITI World Wor II. I...eavenworth Paper no. I I (Fon

eral Staff

KOIIIS.: U.S. Anny Command and Gen· 1985). p. 32.

14. Memo. T"'5COIt for Adj\llllnL General. I Mar 44. sub: Oper:ltion SHINCLE. P\l. 4·8: and Gu"",,, OjleM·

,/011 /U AIU/o. pp. 9. 12,

IS. T1le Gennan commanders well' ;vnill.od at this Amcriun failllrt U) 5eil.C an invaluable opportunity.








Foikd (PtIItadclphia. Pa.: J.P.

Co.• 19(3),

pp. 139-43; Blumenmn, SoluTIO toConjTlO. pp. 361.


65; Memo. 8rig Gen John W. O·lbniellil Adjutant General.1 M;u44.sub: HiSiorical Rc<nn1,3d Infantry Division. After Action Rpc for January 1944. pp. 3·5;

1I/I/OI j oflILt Third IlI/o/tl'J nMsion. ill World Wtlr /I Onnald G. Taggan, cd. (W.,hington, D.C.: Infantry

Journal Press. 1947), pp. 10\1· 11: Gt."WTI O"",ad()"

at "'"rio. p. 142. 16, By the evening of 22 January. Army Grt/Q(! C decided tIw the Anzio invasion was the Allies' major

.tack. Left urochecked, the assault 00IL1d lead 10 I.hc: ooIlapsc ofthc tntlrt Ja\lthem front. .i.t.. the envelop

ment of the pp. II· 12.

Line. GtrnlOfI Opmuion at Am/o,

17. After the An>.io tlper.llion senior German Army le.uc", 'lucSiioned the Allies' immediate UW\$ltlM from auackcr to defender. 8Iumet\.<;nn. SO/UN) 14

C4fSINJ. p. 389. 18. llIc objectivc WIS twofOld: 10 hold the Allies as far 50IIth as possiblc and 10 build up reserves behind (;':nnan defensivc positions for a decisive countcl1llt\3d;. Gtrmoll Opt,tUiOll OJ AlUio. p. 19; and

Tagsan. nurd 1,",011/'1 Oivisiofl. p. III. Ill. Memo. Truscott fill' Adjulllnt General. IS M:II'44, suh: OpcllLlionSHINCLE. p. 9; Taggan, Thlrdill/ollrry

  • m.

    isil>tt. p. 112.

    • 20.

      Wynfon:l Vaullhan·11Iomu. AIlZ/o (New Yort.:

HolL RII'II:h.ln. &. Winstun Publishers, 1%1), p. 61.

  • 21.

    Billmenson. StIlt'N) 14 ConiftO. p. &7.

  • 22.

    Unfonurwely. instead or n:cogni.jng the Ger·

mans' actual i11lCIII- III ddend in depth :tnd hold at all

rosts-AUkd intelligence

predicted thai. the

enemy pmmbly would rcson to

actions and

small·scale COlmtellLlLa\:ks. Tawn, Third In/Ollrry

112·16: Memo. O'Danicl for Adjulllnl Qncral. 7 Mar 44, suI'!: tt i5111riCai RrumJ. 3d Infantl')'

Oivision. pp. 4·6; King. H.OlIgt rl. p. 34. 2). This estimate i, curious in the light of e.r1lcr engagements involvinl the IItrmallll GCH!riltg P tuUU

Olois/oll. ""hidltraditil'lrlally _

used to rcinfO<tc key

ordecisive Ienain or 10 conc1uct major counlCraUacks. King. ROlIgtTs. p. 34: Roben D. 8urlw1s, TIlt FI'&I SptCiol Strvict Foree : A Wor 11/1/0')' u{ lilt Honk

Alllt.icolU. 1942·1944

I),C.: 'The In·

fantry Journal Inc., 1947). reprint cd. by I..ce Printing Co.. Da\IO!I, Ga.. 1985. pp. H7· 163. 24. AnticipalinJ: VI Corps' llIukoot plan. the 3d Division 5OIIg/>t 10 mulmtu its available cnmhat

Consequently. on 28 Janull}' Gcn:ra1Truseou

Il'queskd a

fronta,ge reduction :tnd assiJ·

tara in rnT iItt\Irily opcr.lllions. Maj. Gen. JolIn P.

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