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raid On the Hali." nJval base at Tuamo In Nnvember 1940, 1llc: ''''Puial JO/HlfltJf Nary. in addition 10 a new and large submarine force. w;as believed 10 have • k:ua si. IIr;c QrnC'fJ-UctJ capable nfllurw;hing thirty to finy plana. Curiously. however, lhe threat ?f a submarine or carrier raid remained SttOIIdary In

thinking al the limc

t)f lhe great

distance from Japan 10 lIawailand IIleronvlalon tllat

U.S. Nav)' sea and naval force. (S)

woulddetea Inyhostile

On a small island with ucellenlagricuhur.JJ JlO'

lential, the Ann)' had 10

constant attention 1,0

civilian intcrests. 1llc: Hawaiian economy w;as dorm_ nated by a landowning·bankinll_lgriculrurai networlc known;as IIle ·'Blg Fi ve," Friaion with the Sig developed when !he Hawaiian Dl:palUllCnt held rna_ neuvcl'5. Tn l'C-(;realC reaH!lic wnditiom. command. el'5 wanled thc:lr units 10 movc 1<.> all dcfelt5lve posi_ lions. including Lhose on private pn.>pcrty, /JUI If lIley did so, Oig Five sugar and pineapple gfVwel'5 protested wtw they saw ;as uespassing. To avoid I sp.1tc of lawsuits. lIerron onIcn:d his trvops to remain on roads or undevetoped areas, a policy which denied realislic training to many uni ts, especially mnhile anti.ir",....ft


1llc: sblemalC over land U!le continued

Lhrough the

19305 and Into 1941. (9)

To counter the various threats identified In IIle Pacific. the lIawaiian Dcparunent had an UndeBi1,e

Infmtry division, I brigade of

Irtillery, anoJ an

wing tlftwo bombardment and one pursuit ilroups. n.c: Ilawall3/1 Divisioo did OIJII have enough lroops to defend all of the Hu..aiian blands. oreven the coast line of O.1hu. but this was not a major oooa:m of Marshall or Herron bei:ause both disoountoo the pas. sihility of land inv;tSion. In In cmergency. units WOuld havc an antisaootagc mission. Deficlen.

ties in artillery and ain:raft wen:

serious, Two of

the thrtt t)'llCS oraraia1rtl'lll\ weaponry

from !he

World War. 3-lnch Nllerles Ii'll .3O-c3Iibermachlnt: !:uns. Only the ..ID-cal iocr machine guns could be cf rC(;(iveagainstmodem aireran. AI Whc:clerand Hickam fields, Herron had obsolete B·IS bombel'!l and p.3(i ",,<wit pI.mes. Prospects for <lir mockml1.ation in Hawaii were pool because official Amertcan neulf1ll.


largc-!leale production in the late 19J1l5:

laler. when Britain came under Gennan .ir attack. Presidenl Roosevelt ordered dlvcl'!lion of I p<.>rtion of

Amctican II rel'llfl productilll1 10 the Royal Air r'Orce. (10)

General Marshall tested defenses in Hawaii by

calling an ilIlo()Ul alert in the

1940. Dl:spite


,<;«,CUlry of the A,,", Michael P.W. SIOIlC

Chit/O/Sluf/. U.s. Ar,"y Genef;lJ Gordon R. Sullivan

Chiq o{Milifary lIi.Jlory Brig. Gel\, Harold W. Nelson

Chic/H(flor/an Jeffrey J. Oar1<e, f'tl,O.

MaNJgi"l F.dil )r Amold G. Fisdl, Jr., f'b ,D.

A...nciolc Editor Edward N. Rcdcsscnl

A.J. lSlalll Editor! Di3l1l,' Anns DiUy A. Anhur Sherry L. no...'tIy

A,III}' IfIsUJry (l>R·20-91-4) is published hy

the Center ofMJlJlary HiStory for the professiorUl development or Anny h'SlOriall!i. The reproduc. tion ofanides for educational PUf']X)iIClI is encour aged. CorreSpOndence should be Iddl'C$SCd to Manijing Editor.Ar,"ylliw)'Y. U.S. Anny Cen terofMililary ••i$lOt)'. Federal Center. Rklll· 159. 3d &; M Su. S.E., Wishinilton. D.C. 20)74·5088. Telephone AV 335·2955 or com.

rnereill (202) 47'·2\IUS. Opinions


this publication are lhose of the JUthol'5. not !he

OfDcretl5C orilSconstiruent clements.

""",/turory', COCIIenlJ do not necessarily ""rlcd the official Anny position and doOOlSUpcr=lc in fonnatlon in OIhcr uftici31 Anny pubHC8liorL'l or Anny Regulations. This bulletin approvoo for official ination ofmaterial designed to kco..'P individuals within the Anny knowlooSeablcofde velopmentS within Anny himry for the ofenhancing theirpru(cMiooal !lcvc!opment Use Of(ullr.is (or printing this publication w;as approved by the Dl:p.1runcnt or the Army 00 7 Sc:JlIember

19S3. in iICCOn:Jance with AR 310- J. Postage paid II Washington, D.C.

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