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exists only in the form of a diatomic molecule. It is a product of the electrolysis reaction:

2NaCl + 2H2O Æ 2NaOH + Cl2 + H2.

“Life evolved from water” [Ref. 1]. The ocean holds all of the chloride that we

need. Chloride is formed as a byproduct of the electrolytes, K, Mg, and Na. “In its

original form, chloride is formed from various rocks into soil and water by years of

weathering process” [Ref. 3]. From there, it is transported to oceans or closed basins.

Chloride is also found in the stomach as HCl, where it maintains the pH. Chloride is very

important for human metabolic processes. “To function properly, organisms must

actively pump sodium and chloride out of cells and actively take in potassium.” [Ref. 1].

The biological functions of sodium, potassium, and chloride include controlling cellular

properties such as osmotic pressure, membrane potentials, condensation of

polyelectrolytes, and required ionic strength for activity [Ref. 1].

Chloride is also an essential mineral [Ref. 4]. “Chloride is the major extracellular

anion maintained at a concentration of 100-110 mmol L-1 in that fluid.” [Ref. 1]. “Like

Na+, there is no control over Cl- absorption, and homeostasis is affected by renal

reabsorption” [Ref. 1]. It represents 70% of the body’s total negative ion content [Ref. 3].

The suggested amount of chloride intake is 750-900 mg/day [Ref. 3] As a main

electrolyte in the body, it assists in conduction of electrical impulses. Chlorine is an

electrolyte and a minor element making up 0.14% of the concentration of elements in the

human body [Ref. 3, 4]. Another role of chloride in the body is to combine with

hydrogen to form HCl, which breaks down proteins for absorption of other metallic

minerals. It also maintains the electrical neutrality across the stomach membrane. With

Na and K, chloride works well to keep all of our biological systems running smoothly.


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