underlying business logic.
When XML is used as envisioned, all data, both of type character and numeric are
represented as printable text, completely divorced from any platform-specific
representation or encoding. The net effect is that two entities or programs can interact
without having to know the data structures that comprise each other's binary interface.
Of course, the XML that is exchanged cannot be arbitrary, so industry standards such as
XML Schema (XSD) ,  and Web Services Definition Language (WSDL) ,
 were developed. XML Schema is used to formally describe XML documents, while
WSDL is used to describe services and the operations they support. Operations in Web
services are akin to public methods in the object-oriented programming paradigm. A
Web service is considered to be WS-I compliant , or generally interoperable, if it
meets many criteria, not the least of which is using XML documents for the input and
output of each operation. There are many criteria defined by WS-I that apply to a Web
service definition, but this particular facet, where XML is the interoperable interface of
choice, sets the stage for a meaningful exercise where the focus is on the activity of
making a component from a COBOL program that is reusable from Java using XML in a
light-weight, local environment.
In recent history, the ability to parse and generate XML documents has been
added to the COBOL language in many implementations including the Micro Focus and
IBM COBOL compilers and runtimes , . XML parsing in COBOL is
accomplished through the use of the XML PARSE statement, which performs an event-