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JUN 1895.

MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW.

  • -

    ~

201

temperatures were the lowest on record at : Key West, 69 Lander, 29 ; Pysht, 37 ; Fort Canby, 44 ;.Olympia, 35.

PRECIPITATION.

[Ininches and hundredths.]

The greatest daily rniige of temperattire niid thc. cztrem monthly range are given for each of the regular Weathe Bureau stations in Table I,which also gives data from whicl may be computed the extreme monthly ranges for each sta

tion.

The

largest

values

among

the

were : Carson City and Baker City, 46 ;

son, 45;

Havre and Port Crescent, 44.

greatest daily range1 Idaho Falls and Tuc The smallest valiiei

The distribution of precipitation for the current month, as deterniined by reports from about 2,500 stations, is exhibited on Chart 111. The numerical details are given in Tables I, 11,and 111. The precipitation was heaviest, 3 to 13 inches, in the central and southern portion of the country, but least, averaging less than 0.5, on the Rocky Mountain slope and Pacific coa.st.

were

:

Port

Eads,

8;

Galveston,

13 ;

Hatteras,

14 ;

Key

West

17. were

Among the extreme monthly .ranges the largest : Tucson, 68; Fresno, 62; Idaho Falls, 60. The

value1 small

est values were : Port 20; Key West, 21.

Eads,

11 ; Galveston,

18 ;

Corpus

Christi

The accuniulatrd monthly cleparhres from normal tempera tures from January 1 to the end of the current month arc given in the second column of the following table, and thc average departures are given in the third column, for com parison with the departures of current conditions of vegeta tion from the normal conditions.

Distdcta.

Accumulated d e p a r t u r e s . 1 1 1 I r - a g e . ( 1

Districts.

A c c u m u l a t e d I d e p a r t u r e s . 1 T o D a l . I T

Upper Lakes ............. North Dakota.. ........... Missouri V a l l e y .......... Northern lateau ........ NorthPacyflc.............

  • +

    0.4

+O.i

O h i o V a l l e y a n d T e n n . . . . - 1 3 . 5 East Gulf................. -18.4 ~VestGulf................ -16.4 L o w e r L 8 k e . s . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 4 . 8 U p p e r M i s s i s s i p p i . . . . . . . . - 2 . 2 N o r t h e r n s l o p e . . . . . . . . . . . - 5 . 9 M i d d l e s l o p e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 4 . 3 S o u t h e r n s l o p e ( A b i 1 e n e ) . - 1 5 . 5 S o u t h e r n p l a t e a u . . . . . . . . - 5 . 0 M i d d l e i a t e a u . . . . . . . . . . . - 6 . 6 M i d d l e b a c i f i c . . . . . . . . . . . . - 1 . 3 I S o u t h P a c l f i c . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 1.9

  • -

    3.'

  • -

    2.'

  • -

    3.:

  • -

    0.1

  • -

    0..

  • -

    1.4

  • -

    0.:

  • -

    2.1

  • -

    0.1

  • -

    1.:

  • -

    0.:

  • -

    0.:

The diurna.1variation is shown by Table YII, which gives the total precipitation for each hour of seventy-fifth meridian time, as deduced from self-registering gauges kept at about 43 regular stations of the Weather Bureau ; of these 37 are Boat gauges and 6 are weighing gauges.

The qtornial precipitation for each month is approximately shown in the Atlas of Weather Bureau Bulletin C, entitled " Rainfall and Snow of the United States, compiled to the end of 1891,with annual, seasonal, monthly, and other charts."

The cwrent departures from the nornial precipitation are given in Table I, which shows that precipitation was in excess in the Gulf States, the northern and middle slopes, and es- pecially the southern Atlantic slope ; it was deficient through- out the Pacific States, the northern pleteau region, upper Mississippi Valley, Lake region, Ohio Valley, and Atlantic States. The large departures from the monthly normal were : Escesses : Abilene, 5.7 ; Little Rock, 4.7 ; New Orleans, 3.0. Deficits : Dubuqne, 4.0; Indianapolis, 3.6 ; Grand Haven and fiydney, 3.4; Davenport, 3.2 ; Galveston, Wilmington, rtnd Detroit, 3.1.

Theaverage departwe for each district is also given in Table I. By dividing these by the respective normals the following :orresponding percentages are obtained (precipitation is in ?xcesswhen the percentages of the normal exceeds 100).

Above the normal : East Gulf, 115; west Gulf, 129; North Dakota, 122; Missouri Valley, 102; northern slope, 136 ; middle slope, 123; Abilene (southern slope), 311.

MOISTURE.

The quantity of moistwe in the atmosphere a t any time may be expressed by nieans of the weight contained in a cubic foot of air, or liy the tension or pressure of the vapor, or by the temperature of the dew-point. The mean dew-points for each station of the Weather Bureau, as deduced from obser- vations made a t 8 a. m. and 8 p. m., daily, are given in Table I.

The rats of evaporation from a special surface of water on muslin a t any moment determines the temperature of the wet-bulb th.ermometet'. An evaporometer may be made to re- cord the quantity of water evaporated from a similar surface during any interval of time. This, therefore, would sum up or integrate the effect of those influences that determine the temperature as given by the wet bulb ; from this evaporation the average htrmidity qf the air during any given interval of time may be deduced.

The sensible teiiyernture experienced by the human body and attributed to the atmosphere depends not merely upon the temperature of the air, but equally upon the dryness and the wind, and is apparently the same as the temperature of the wet-bulb thermometer as obtained by the whirling apparatus used in the shaded shelter. The temperature of the wet-bulb thermometer and its depression below the dry bulb are the fundamental data for all investigations into the relation be- tween human physiology and the atmosphere. I n order to pre- sent a monthly sunimary of the atmospheric conditions from a hygienic and physiological point of view, Table VI11 has been prepared, showing the maximum, minimum, and mean readings of the wet-bulb thermometer a t 8 a. m. and 8 p. ni., aeventy-fifth meridian time.

Normal : Southern Pacific, 0. Below the normal : New England, 6s ; middle Atlgntic, 72; south Atlantic, 75; Florida Peninsula, 80;Ohio Valley and l'ennessee, 75 ; lower Lake, 38 ; upper ' Lake, 60 ; upper Mis- rissippi, 69 ; southern plateau, 60; middle plateau, 55 ; north- ?rn plateau, 32 ; north Pacific, 41; middle Pacific, 3.

The t o t d asrwnulated month.2y departures from normal pre- :ipitation from ,January 1 to the end of the current month we given in the second column of the following table; the ;hird column gives the ratio of the current accumulated ?recipitation to its normal value.

. b i l e n e ( S o u t \ e r n s l o p e ) . lortheru slo e............ . o u t h e r n p l a t e a u . . . . . . . . .

+ 0.90 $ : : E

Per cl 103 110 111 108 105

DqAelts. ............ New En land

Inched.

. - 4 10

Middle &lantic ..........

- 1.60

U p p e r Florida Peninsula .. ...... EastG-ulf................... L a k e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . M i s s o u r i V a l l e y . . . . . . . . . . M i d d l e s l o p e . . . . . . . . . . . . . M i d d l e p l a t e a u . . . . . . . . . . . N o r t h e r n p l a t e a u . . . . . . . . N o r t h P a c i f i c . . . . . . . . . . . . . U p p e r M i s s i s s i p p i . . . . . . . . - 4 . 1 0 - 6 . 6 0 3 . 9 0 0 . 7 0 I 1 a m _ W c s t G u l f . . 2.20 - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 5 . g O h i o V a l l e y a n d T e n n . . . . - 7 . 3 0 L o w e r L a k e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 6 . 1 0 - 0.80 - 8.10 - 0.30

The years of greatest aid least precipitatioia for June are given n the REVIEWfor June, 1894. The precipitation for the cur- ent month was the greatest on record a t : Abilene, 8.40; 'ueblo, 2.09 ; Rapid City, 6.22. It was the least on record a t :

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