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  • (f)

    apprehension towards males where the abductor had been the male parent,

  • (g)

    hostility towards the nationality and to things associated with the nationality of the abductor,

  • (h)

    general lack of confidence and a need for constant reassurance from the interviewed parent,

  • (i)

    a need to be fully aware at all times of the movements and whereabouts of the interviewed parent,

  • (j)

    a need to test the interviewed parent in terms of the parent/child relationship,

  • (k)

    the failure to keep up with the language of the left- behind parent so that a practical barrier exists now between that parent and the child(ren),

  • (l)

    general insecurity and a need for acceptance and to be the centre of attention,

  • (m)

    sibling jealousy where living with others who were not abducted and which is related to the attention the abducted child(ren) receives.

One interviewed left-behind parent graphically described how a psychological barrier has been created between that parent and the returned child(ren) because everyone involved knows that they survived this period of separation and life without each other and have now all lost faith in their reciprocal need.

Some of these effects have been short-lived, lasting for 6 months or 1 year. Others are described by the interviewed parent as on-going and current, therefore lasting, in their view, several

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