International scientific co-operation
Institute of Informatics, Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava closely cooperates with several European scientific institutions (Cyfronet, Krakow, Poland; Fraunhofer-Institut für Rechnerarchitektur und Softwaretechnik FIRST, Berlin, Germany; Universitaet Innsbruck, Institute for Computer Science, Innsbruck, Austria, CCLRC-Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils, Chilton, England) in knowledge oriented technologies, especially in 5RP and 6RP IST projects, in which the institute participated in creating solutions for knowledge management, organizational memories and information resources processing. One of the ongoing programs is K-Wf Grid „Knowledge-based Workflow System for Grid Applications“ EU RTD IST FP6-511385
Description of the project (range - maximum 5 pages)
Present state of the subject
Particular contribution expected
Proposal of the ways to reach the project goals, including timetable
Working group (comment on the choice of the research group)
Description of applied methods and their explanation
a) Present state of the subject The world economy is moving towards the so called knowledge economy , while its important feature is capability of organizations to appreciate their knowledge capital. Technologies and knowledge are becoming the key factors in productivity growth. Currently research and development in the area of semantic web, knowledge and intelligent technologies is focusing attention on this field. Knowledge Models, Modeling and Organizational Memories
Organizational memory is an explicit, disembodied and permanent representation of crucial knowledge and information in organizations. Such type of memory has to enable availability, sharing and reuse by organization members working on individual or collective tasks. Organizational memory development has to be preceded by design of an information and knowledge model. Part of this model then forms a structure and properties of organizational memory data. Knowledge is modeled using various techniques such as knowledge ontologies [26, 27], object oriented approaches or methodologies such as CommonKADS .
A significant aspect in the knowledge acquisition process is the use of knowledge modeling in order to structure acquired and evaluated knowledge that is consequently stored to be used in the future. Knowledge models are structured knowledge representations using symbols to represent knowledge sets and relations among them. Upon text processing, knowledge models are developed and knowledge tools are striving to identify fundamental objects. Basic knowledge objects are concepts, instances, processes (tasks, activities), attributes and values, rules and relations.
Within organizational memories, knowledge is understood as a varying mixture of framework experience of various values of contextual information and basic intuition. Such mixture provides environment and framework for evaluation and adding of new experience and information . This type of memory has to enable availability, sharing and reuse by organization members working on individual or collective tasks. Current approaches for modeling and development of organizational memory knowledge are based on the principles of semantic web, i.e. a heterogeneous approach to distributed knowledge either in an organization or among organizations. Semantic web provides tools and languages for development and management of knowledge via ontologies which creates a framework for knowledge representation that searches the line between sufficient expressivity and complexity of such described model. Under ontology we understand an integrated set of information on certain activity or interest. Common ontology types used in the web environment contain taxonomy and a set of derivation rules. Application of derivation rules enables to derive new knowledge from known facts. Examples of existing organizational memories on the basis of semantic web are Kaon, Racer, Sesame, Swoop  and Pellet allowing users simple management of knowledge represented in OWL , RDF and RDFS [26, 27] languages.
Distributed organizational memories play an important role in interconnection and communication among individual organizations in the knowledge economy and thus create new environment to support knowledge processes and processing of information resources. Explicit knowledge modeling via rules and scripts can simplify developmental environment for formation and processing of knowledge allowing thus simple creation and presentation of methods for knowledge discovery in organizations.
In a knowledge oriented system it is important to have dynamic, not static unchanging knowledge and to use them properly in relevant situations. Electronic communication makes this possible : Every organization, without exception, will have an e-mail infrastructure before it reaches the stage of developing an organizational memory; E-mail communication in a modern organization is over 78% action-oriented, according to a recent study . Organizations must converge to action, and communication is perhaps the foundation for most organizational action ; Managers, and knowledge workers of all kinds, interact with their e-mail systems on a daily basis; Managers are motivated to achieve successful communication.
When building a solution on top of email communication, an organization does not have to change the way of doing its business, when such a solution is installed and set up in an organization. Users simply receive emails in the same way as before, but with attached relevant knowledge to the problem which the email represents.