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“Collective behaviour may be defined as those forms of

 social behaviour in which usual conventions cease to

 guide social action and people collectively transcend,

 bypass or subvert established institutional patterns

 and structures”  (Turner and Killian, 1987)

emphasis is on the way definitions are defined and new

 norms emerge to make sense of these situations, to guide

 behaviour (e.g. how do you know when it is a real fire alarm,

 not just a fire drill?)

emergent norms are ‘social facts’, external to and coercive

 with respect to individual behaviour

theory strongly influenced by Symbolic Interactionism, and

 the W.I. Thomas’s concept of definition of the situation –   

 also the concept of ‘taken for granted reality’

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