In their approach to the analysis of governance and performance, Lynn, Heinrich and Hill (2000) introduce a conceptual order to the model components or variables hypothesized to influence government effectiveness. They identify structural, managerial and operational components that include: ownership, centralization of control, coordination and functional differentiation, administrative rules and incentives, resource allocations, institutional culture/values, contractual arrangements, leadership practices, staff-management relations, professionalism, monitoring and control mechanisms, organizational mission, and program treatments/technology. These components are described as operating across hierarchical levels of political and legislative choice; the formal structures and processes of public agencies; programs and administrative activities; core technologies and primary work, and outputs or results and stakeholder assessments. All of these theories/frameworks draw from a broad, interdisciplinary literature base that includes public administration, sociological, pyscho-social, economic and business management theories and classic works about bureaucratic functioning and performance.
Researchers are using these and analogous frameworks to guide the development of hypotheses and empirical tests of the relationship of structural, management and primary work variables to organization/program outcomes. Brewer and Selden (2000), for example, draw on the theoretical framework proposed by Rainey and Steinbauer (1999) to empirically model important factors affecting federal employees’ perceptions of organizational performance. Based on employee surveys, they developed measures of organizational culture (teamwork, efficacy, employee protections), human capital and capacity, agency goals, leadership and supervision, “red tape”, and individual perceptions of task structure, motivation and performance. They find perceived efficacy, teamwork, human capital, and task/work structure and motivation to