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of treatment improvement between two classic structural alternatives: centralized grant programs with a range of incentives and priorities in the largest cities (“Target Cities”), and smaller, more individualized grants with a different constellation of incentives and priorities to programs serving high risk, disadvantaged groups (“Critical populations”).  This variable represents a potentially important federal policy choice about how to organize treatment services delivery, with implications for the federal government’s capability to motivate and support treatment improvements.  A third demonstration program focused on improving substance abuse treatment services for correctional (incarcerated) populations.  Programs for the adolescent/juvenile justice population were also distinguished from those of other critical populations and the general correctional population.  

Consistent with previous NTIES research, we identify four major categories of treatment modality among the SDUs:  short-term residential, long-term residential, outpatient non-methadone (drug-free), and outpatient methadone.  The modality represents three aspects of the treatment process: (1) whether the services are provided in a residential or outpatient setting, (2) whether treatment is “drug-free” or if methadone is used to help patients make the transition off of drugs (most commonly heroin), and (3) among  residential programs, whether a short-term or long-term treatment approach is used.  Both CSAT program (grant) type and treatment modality are categorized in Table 1 as variables that define the organizational mission; that is, who the SDU will target for services and the basic approach to treatment.  CSAT program type is also described as an organizational structure variable, as it distinguishes centralized approaches to service delivery in the largest cities from smaller, more individualized grants targeted to high-risk groups and programs based in correctional facilities.  Treatment modality is also listed under an additional category in Table 1, as it is clearly an important measure of service technology.

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