As expected, there are a number of important associations among the CSAT program type and treatment modality variables and other components of organizational structure and culture, management capacity, and task design/service technology. Table 2 shows that the Target Cities and outpatient drug-free programs are the most numerous among this matrix of program types. Among CSAT program types, the average number of clients was also highest in the Target Cities programs, and among treatment modalities, the average number of clients was highest in outpatient methadone programs. Gerstein et al. (1997) present extensive descriptive analyses of the NTIES service delivery units, focusing on program type and treatment modality, and their work serves as an important reference for this analysis. Many relationships explored among these and other variables in Table 1 will not be presented in this paper. The analytical discussion focuses on the statistically significant findings (confirmed through two-sample t-tests, analysis of variance, correlation analysis, and chi-square tests)1 and those related to previous findings in the substance abuse treatment and public management literatures.
Substance abuse treatment research has primarily probed the relationships among task design/service technology factors and program outcomes. The fairly strong and consistent relationship found between length of treatment and program outcomes prompted our investigation of the programs’ “planned length of treatment.” While planned length of treatment did not vary by CSAT grant type, it differed significantly across treatment modalities, as expected. The majority of long-term residential and outpatient methadone programs planned for treatment durations greater than 120 days, whereas nearly all short-term residential programs
1 P-values indicating the level of significance attained in these tests of significance are reported in the text.