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(91%) and the majority of outpatient drug-free programs (55%) planned for treatment to last 120 days or less.  Other important factors that related to the planned length of treatment included whether or not the SDUs had case managers (p = 0.0023).  The use of case managers was positively related to treatment duration, even after controlling for treatment modality.  For example, in outpatient drug-free programs, 56 percent of programs with planned treatment duration greater than 120 days had case managers, compared to only 36 percent of programs with shorter planned treatment durations.  Longer planned treatment durations were also significantly and positively related to the provision of primary medical care services, either on-site or off-site2 (p = 0.0228).  Among the other service technology variables in Table 1, planned length of treatment was significant (and positively) associated with just one other measure, the therapeutic emphasis on a medical/psychiatric model.

Another interesting finding of this analysis was that even though the average revenue per client (a financial management measure) was not significantly different between programs with planned treatment length greater than or less than/equal to 120 days, a significant association between patient insurance and planned treatment length was observed.  Specifically, the percent of patients unable to pay for treatment was significantly higher (p = 0.0479) in SDUs with a planned length of treatment 120 days or less.  This pattern persisted even after controlling for program modality and appears particularly strong for the short-term and long-term residential programs (see Table 3.)  In outpatient methadone programs with a planned length of treatment greater than 120 days, the percent of patients privately insured and the average revenue per client were significantly higher than in outpatient methadone programs with a shorter planned

2Many SDUs that delivered on-site medical services also provided off-site services, so this information was combined into a single variable.

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