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provision of supportive services, counseling intensity, etc.).  These findings will serve as an important guide to the specification of multilevel models that will relate the wide range of manipulable factors to patient outcomes.  More generally, this research also contributes to a growing body of rigorous empirical research that is illuminating how governance and public management contribute to public program effectiveness.

In the next section, a review of the literature on substance abuse treatment program effectiveness is presented, including a description of previous large-scales studies, definitions and measures of program or organizational factors in this literature, and research findings.   The important contributions of public management theory to this study are discussed next, including the development of an organizing framework for this research and its application to exploratory analyses of the NTIES program-level data.  The presentation of the descriptive analytical findings is followed by a discussion of how these insights will be used to guide the next phase of analysis, multilevel modeling, and some of the challenges that we expect to address in ongoing analyses.  We conclude with a summary of our objectives and findings.

LITERATURE ON SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS

Previous large-scale studies and the distinctiveness of NTIES

Dramatic increases in illicit drug use in the 1960s were followed by a substantial increase in federal funding of substance abuse treatment and the initiation of the first large-scale study of substance abuse treatment effectiveness, the Substance Abuse Reporting Program (DARP).  The DARP collected data from approximately 44,000 patients and 52 federally-funded treatment programs between 1969 and 1972.  DARP was closely followed by the Treatment Outcome Prospective Study (TOPS), which was intended to expand the type of data collected in DARP

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