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not ‘match’ them, programs with high and low levels of resources per client, and programs with centrally controlled protocols and programs with less central control,” although not all of these factors were measured.  Researchers analyzing these data described the measurement of program variables as incomplete and recommended the collection of additional information about programs in future studies (Schildhaus et al., 2000b)

The NTIES data that are used in this analysis come from the largest single study of substance abuse treatment outcomes undertaken to date.  In 1989, the Office for Treatment Improvement (OTI) was established to improve treatment quality and effectiveness, promote the use of treatment methods known to be effective, and to provide financial and technical assistance for “targeted areas and critical populations.” (Gerstein, et al., 1997).  Over the period 1989-1992, 157 multi-year demonstration program grants were awarded in support of these objectives, and in 1992, OTI became the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) under the new Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.  The NTIES multi-site study was originally designed in 1992 to evaluate the use of the CSAT grants and their effectiveness in promoting a comprehensive treatment model.  The data analyzed in this paper come from the more than 500 service delivery units that were recipients of CSAT demonstration grants.  These data include information on staffing, clinical organization, patient flows, costs, and revenues collected from each program's chief financial officer and chief executive officer, and additional data collected from all clinicians in each program.  While these data can be linked to the extensive client-level data (including outcomes) in 62 treatment programs involving over 4,000 patients, the research presented here focuses primarily on analysis of the administrative/program-level data.  (See Appendix A for additional information about the data used in this analysis.)

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