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CHAPTER 22: THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS

VIII.GESTATION

A.Introduction

1.Definition = the time a zygote, embryo, and fetus is carried in the female reproductive tract;

2.Time period = 266 days from fertilization;

3.Obstetrics = the specialized branch of medicine that deals with pregnancy, labor, and the period immediately following birth.

B.Anatomical Changes of Uterus:  

1.occupies most of pelvic cavity by end of month 3;

2.At full-term, occupies most of the abdominal cavity.

a.Liver, intestines and stomach are pushed upward;

b.elevates diaphragm;

c.widens thoracic cavity;

d.Ureters and urinary bladder are compressed.

C.Physiological Changes:

1.General:

a.weight gain (from fetus, amniotic fluid,   placenta, uterus, and water);

b.increased storage of proteins, triglycerides, and minerals;

c.marked breast enlargement in prep of lactation;

d.lower back pain due to lordosis.

2.Cardiovascular Changes:

a.increase in SV & CO by 30%;

b.increase in HR by 10/15%;

c.increase in blood volume by 30/50%;

d.compression of IVC decreases venous blood return and results in edema in lower limbs.

3.Pulmonary Changes:

a.TV & ERV increase 30/40%;

b.functional residual capacity may decrease to 25%;

c.Total oxygen consumption increases 10/20%.

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