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The Persian concept of “ta‟arof” involves all three issues: L, D, C

  • Central concept = warm welcoming, praising, politeness and good manners

  • Origins in the Arabic term for “mutual recognition”

  • Essential ability for negotiating relationships

  • Involves offers, compliments, exchange of pleasantries, food, gifts, and invitations

  • Expression of selflessness and humility - necessary for keeping face - “shaxsiiyaet” and showing sincerity and respect

    • -

      “ehteram”

  • Can be interpreted as empty formality or ritual courtesy by NA but runs much deeper - has no equivalent in NA culture

  • Iranians can be dismayed by a lack of „ta‟arof‟ in our classroom cultures

16 (Cultural info from Eslami, 2005)

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