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IFEU Heidelberg

Fig. 5: Energy chain for diesel and electricity (schematic presentation) Energy chain for diesel and electricity (schematic presentation)

100%

Basic

Basic

10%

energy

energy

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

Extraction & processing Conversion Transformation Final energy

Primary energy

IFEU 2003

Diesel

Source: [IFEU & SGKV 2002] with modifications

0%

Electricity

Most road vehicles to date are fuel (either gasoline or diesel) powered and most rail ve- hicles have electric engines. The German Petroleum Trade Association ([MWV 2002]) assumes that the share of alternative engines for passenger cars in Germany will re- main lower than 2 % until 2015. To compare vehicles with different final energy carriers, the energy savings have to be converted to equal energy units, for instance kJ. The dif- ferences in the efficiency of energy supply and CO2 emissions between fuels and electricity are shown in Tab. 1. For this analysis we use the energy split for the EU 15 with 34.3 % nuclear energy and 13.6 % hydro energy ([EC 2002]). The thermal efficiency is 39.9 % and 33 % and 100 % efficiency are assumed for nuclear and hydro

energy respectively.

Tab. 1: Efficiency of energy supply and CO2 emissions in Europe

Final energy carrier

Efficiency

g CO2/MJ final energy

(Final energy/ primary energy)

Diesel

87 %

83.4

Gasoline

83 %

Electricity

46 %

87.0

118.7

Source: [GEMIS 2000], [TREMOD 2001] & [EC 2002]

IFEU 2003

Adjustment in the CO2 emission factors have to be made for the respective energy split and efficiencies if the results of this study are used for a specific country. Switzerland, for example, had a share of hydro power of 60 % in 2001 ([UCTE 2002]). For the exem- plification of the reductions of new registrations the efficiency factors of the German electricity mix ([TREMOD 2001]) are used.

Energy savings by light-weighting

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