6.3 Long distance passenger trains
6.3.1 Specific energy consumption
Long distance passenger trains will be differentiated in normal passenger trains with maximum speeds between 150 and 200 km/h and high speed trains with maximum speeds over 200 km/ h. [JORGENSEN & SORENSON 1997] have analysed the spe- cific end energy consumption of various European passenger trains. The overview in Tab. 22 shows that the values congregate around 80-110 kJ/ gross -km for a high speed train like the ICE and around 100 to 160 kJ/ gross t-km for a normal passenger train. While [JORGENSEN & SORENSON 1997], [KÖSER et al. 2002] and [IFEU 2002b] derived average values for an ICE, [BÜTTNER & HEYN 1999] are using data from a specific testing relation. This may explain for the different figures for the ICE. Dif- ferences between the countries may be due to different use patterns, train technologies or analysis methods. Much higher values for trains in Switzerland is due to gradients in the route characteristics. The lower values for the German IC/ EC in comparison with the Swedish and Danish train probably results from less frequent stops of the IC/ EC. Passenger trains out of Europe are believed to have a lower specific energy consump- tion, due to slower and more steady speeds. We will therefore use a value of 100kJ/gross t-km for both trains. This value has also been stated by the only source covering both options ([JORGENSEN & SORENSON 1997]) with a similar methodol- ogy.
Tab. 22: End energy consumption of long distance passenger trains
Specific energy con- sumption [kJ/ gross t-km]
[BÜTTNER & HEYN 1999] [IFEU 2002b]* [JORGENSEN & SORENSON 1997] [KÖSER et al. 2002]* [JORGENSEN & SORENSON 1997] [JORGENSEN & SORENSON 1997] [INFRAS 1999a]** [JORGENSEN & SORENSON 1997]
ICE (Germany) ICE (Germany) ICE (Germany) ICE (Germany) IC/ EC (Germany) IC3/ APT (Denmark) IC 2000 (Switzerland) RC (Sweden)
Value used in this study for long distance passenger trains
IFEU calculation based on the source ** mountainous routes
82 110 99 100 99 120 162-180 109-124 100
6.3.2 Life-time performance and energy savings
The ICE has a very high life-time performance due to the high annual performance from 450’000 km ([EHINGER et al. 2000]) up to over 500’000 km ([BÜTTNER & HEYN 1999, INFRAS 1999a]) and thus a daily performance of over 1300 km. The life-time of the ICE trains is estimated around 30 years, because of intensive maintenance and mechanical wear, and the life-time performance will therefore be around 15’000’000 km.