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Content: 1 Introduction...............................................................................................................1

2

Executive Summary.................................................................................................2

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

Introduction..............................................................................................................2 Specific energy savings..........................................................................................3 Life time performance.............................................................................................4 Life time energy and CO savings for selected vehicles........................................4 Life time energy and CO savings for the new registrations of one year...............7

2 2

3

Goal and scope definition.......................................................................................9

4 4.1 4.2 4.3

Scientific and technical background...................................................................12 Resistance factors................................................................................................12 Energy supply .......................................................................................................15 Secondary effects of weight reduction .................................................................17

5 5.1

Road Vehicles.........................................................................................................18 Passenger cars ....................................................................................................18

      • 5.1.1

        Fuel consumption and driving cycles ............................................................19

      • 5.1.2

        Specific energy savings by light-weighting....................................................20

      • 5.1.3

        Life-time performance ...................................................................................24

      • 5.1.4

        Life-time energy savings................................................................................24

    • 5.2

      City buses .............................................................................................................26

      • 5.2.1

        Specific energy savings.................................................................................26

      • 5.2.2

        Life-time performance and energy savings...................................................26

    • 5.3

      Long distance buses.............................................................................................28

      • 5.3.1

        Specific energy savings.................................................................................28

      • 5.3.2

        Life-time performance and energy savings...................................................28

    • 5.4

      Articulated Trucks .................................................................................................30

      • 5.4.1

        Specific energy savings.................................................................................30

      • 5.4.2

        Life-time performance and energy savings...................................................31

6 6.1 6.2

Rail vehicles ...........................................................................................................34 Relative energy savings for rail vehicles...............................................................35 Short distance passenger trains...........................................................................37

      • 6.2.1

        Specific energy consumption........................................................................37

      • 6.2.2

        Life-time performance and energy savings...................................................37

    • 6.3

      Long distance passenger trains ...........................................................................39

      • 6.3.1

        Specific energy consumption........................................................................39

      • 6.3.2

        Life-time performance and energy savings...................................................39

    • 6.4

      Long distance freight trains...................................................................................41

7

      • 6.4.1

        Direct energy savings for volume limited cargo............................................41

      • 6.4.2

        Indirect energy savings for weight limited cargo ...........................................43

Sensitivity of data...................................................................................................44

8 8.1 8.2

Light-weighting potential of transport subsystems...........................................46 Life time energy and CO2 savings for selected vehicles......................................46 Potential total energy savings contribution of transport subsystem.....................47

9 10 11

Conclusions ............................................................................................................54 References:.........................................................................................................55 Charts, Figures and Tables...............................................................................59

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