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(Table 1)

Two General Models of Accountability for Nation-States

Who is entitled to hold the powerful accountable?

Power-wielders regarded as:

Those affected by their actions – Participation

Those entrusting them with powers – Delegation

Instrumental agents

Ia “Direct” Democracy Actions of power-wielders are what those affected (the people) instructed them to do in this contingency.

IIa  Principal-Agent: Power-wielders act as faithful agents of principals who empower them.

Discretionary authorities

Ib Populist: Policies followed by the power-wielders lead to outcomes approved by those affected; which leads those affected to confer additional powers.

IIb  Trustee:

Power-wielders perform the duties of their offices faithfully.

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