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Figure 2.  Power Wielders and Constraints

Power-wielder

Relevant international and transnational accountability mechanisms

Strength of constraints

Multilateral organization

Supervisory, fiscal, hierarchical, reputational

Strong

NGOs

Peer, reputational, fiscal, market

Strong when NGO is weak; weaker when NGO is strong

Transgovernmental networks

Peer

Quite weak; more a matter of negotiation constraints

Firms

Market, reputational.

Stronger for brand-name firms in consumer markets and media firms than for more anonymous firms

States

Peer, reputational.  Supervisory and fiscal accountability only for weak, dependent states.

Varies with state power and degree of interdependence.  For relatively powerful states, negotiation constraints are more important than accountability mechanisms.  

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