Relevant international and transnational accountability mechanisms
Strength of constraints
Supervisory, fiscal, hierarchical, reputational
Peer, reputational, fiscal, market
Strong when NGO is weak; weaker when NGO is strong
Quite weak; more a matter of negotiation constraints
Stronger for brand-name firms in consumer markets and media firms than for more anonymous firms
Peer, reputational. Supervisory and fiscal accountability only for weak, dependent states.
Varies with state power and degree of interdependence. For relatively powerful states, negotiation constraints are more important than accountability mechanisms.