Congenital infection - may result in cytomegalic inclusion disease
Perinatal infection - usually asymptomatic
Postnatal infection - usually asymptomatic. However, in a minority of cases, the syndrome of infectious mononucleosis may develop which consists of fever, lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly. The heterophil antibody test is negative although atypical lymphocytes may be found in the blood.
Immunocompromised patients such as transplant recipients and AIDS patients are prone to severe CMV disease such as pneumonitis, retinitis, colitis, and encephalopathy.
Reactivation or reinfection with CMV is usually asymptomatic except in immunocompromised patients.