After primary infection, EBV maintains a steady low grade latent infection in the body. Should the person become immunocompromised, the virus will reactivate. In a few cases, lymphoproliferative lesions and lymphoma may develop. These lesions tend to be extranodal and in unusual sites such as the GI tract or the CNS.
Transplant recipients e.g. renal - EBV is associated with the development of lymphoproliferative disease and lymphoma.
AIDS patients - EBV is associated with oral leukoplakia and with various Non-Hodgekin’s lymphoma.
Ducan X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome - this condition occurs exclusively in males who had inherited a defective gene in the X-chromosome . This condition accounts for half of the fatal cases of IM.