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that trafficked persons in Canada are predominantly forced to work in the sex trade. Investigations conducted by Canadian law enforcement support these findings; TIP cases encountered by Canadian law enforcement involve women and children who are trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation.
Governments in Canada have put in place measures aimed at combating trafficking and
providing support to victims, for example:
Protection for foreign victims of trafficking in Canada has been strengthened
through guidelines for a fee-exempt temporary resident permit for 180 days. Access to health
care (including counselling) is provided through the Interim Federal Health Program and victims
can apply for a concurrent fee-exempt work permit;
Training is provided to law enforcement, border and immigration officials and
civil society on the identification of trafficked victims as well as the new trafficking offences.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police’s Human Trafficking National Coordination
Centre has been established.
The Alberta Coalition Against Human Trafficking is examining issues around
human trafficking in Alberta and includes members from several provincial government departments, the federal government and from non-profit community agencies.
The Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons (OCTIP) in British Columbia, is
working in collaboration with other provincial ministries, federal departments, municipal governments, law enforcement agencies and community organizations, to eliminate human trafficking and build services for trafficked persons. OCTIP takes a human rights centered approach and places the rights and needs of trafficked persons at the centre of all its work.
Motions and resolutions have been adopted by Canadian legislatures with respect
to human trafficking.
1. Measures to combat racism
As a multicultural society, Canada is not immune from problems of racism. Surveys show
that 36 per cent of visible minorities feel they have experienced discrimination and unfair treatment because of ethno-cultural characteristics5 and 46 per cent of Aboriginal people living
off-reserve reported being a victim of racism or discrimination at least once over the previous two years. 6
Governments in Canada have enacted legislative protections as well as policies against
racism and the promotion of hatred. For example, under the Criminal Code of Canada, it is a
crime to advocate or promote genocide, to incite hatred in a public place likely to lead to a
breach of the peace, and to wilfully promote hatred when directed against groups distinguished by race, colour, religion or ethnic origin. In 2004, these offences were extended to apply to groups distinguished by sexual orientation. As well, hate motivation in the commission of any offence, is an aggravating factor for sentencing purposes. Hate speech is also dealt with in the Canadian Human Rights Act and in some provincial human rights Acts. The Canadian Human Rights Commission is currently studying the effectiveness of the Canadian Human Rights Act