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PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
The federal, provincial and territorial governments work both collaboratively and in a
complementary fashion to promote and protect human rights in Canada and enhance implementation of international human rights treaties to which Canada is a party.
All Canadian residents have access to medically necessary services from physicians and
hospitals without charge. Provincial and territorial governments are responsible for the delivery of health care services for the vast majority of Canadians. The Government of Canada assists in the financing of these services through fiscal transfers, primarily through the Canada Health Transfer. It also provides health care benefits and/or services to specific groups, including First Nations and Inuit, the Canadian Forces, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, veterans, federal inmates and refugee protection claimants.
The health care system in Canada is predominantly publicly financed with a mix of public
and private delivery. It is composed of 13 interlocking provincial and territorial health insurance
plans that share the principles of universality, accessibility, comprehensiveness, portability and public administration.
Provincial and territorial governments are responsible for most areas of education, while
the Government of Canada is responsible for the instruction of children living on Indian reserves or Crown lands. Education is generally governed by specific legislation and regulations in each province and territory, which establish the respective rights and responsibilities.
Tuition-free access to public education is guaranteed for all at the elementary and
secondary levels. At the post-secondary education, many financial support programs exist at the
federal and provincial/territorial level, such as the Registered Education Savings Plan, student loans and bursary programs.
An extensive framework of legislation, policy and practice structures housing related
activities in Canada. The National Housing Act (NHA) mandates the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation to promote housing affordability and choice, the availability of low-cost housing finance and the well-being of the housing sector. This is fulfilled by providing mortgage loan insurance to lenders across Canada (including on reserve and in the North) and guaranteeing timely payment of interest and principal on Mortgage-Backed Securities and Canada Mortgage Bonds, thereby ensuring a steady source of funds for Canadian home buyers. The NHA authorizes CMHC to provide housing subsidies to support Canada’s social housing stock for low-income Canadians as well to provide housing assistance for those with special/distinct needs under targeted initiatives.
Federal, provincial and territorial (F-P/T) governments work in collaboration to meet the
housing needs of Canadians, with most administrative arrangements relating to housing programs and delivery governed by F-P/T agreements. Provincial and territorial governments
administer housing programs to give low- and moderate-income families access to adequate and