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A/HRC/WG.6/4/CAN/1 Page 8

Parental Support Benefit is available to residents of the province for 12 months after the child's birth or adoptive placement.


The Governments of Yukon and Saskatchewan have established child care subsidy programs that assist families in attaining a higher standard of living.

  • B.

    Democratic and social participation

    • 32.

      Canada has a parliamentary system of government. The federal nature of Canada underlies

the country’s electoral system; each province has its own electoral system and there is a national or federal electoral system. The Canadian electoral system is governed by the rule of law and is administered by impartial officials who operate independently from the government and politicians. Chief Electoral Officers in each jurisdiction are responsible for exercising general direction and supervision over the preparation, administration, and reporting aspects of elections and election expenses provisions.


The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees every citizen of Canada the

right to meaningful participation in the electoral process including the right to vote in elections

of members of the federal House of Commons and of the legislative assembly for their province

as well as the right to stand for election. The rights to vote and stand for election are subject to certain reasonable limits with respect to age (18 years) and profession (for example, superior court judges may not stand for federal election).


The full and equitable participation of individuals and communities of all origins is a

fundamental principle of Canada’s multicultural and pluralistic society. This principle is reflected in the Canadian Multiculturalism Act, proclaimed in 1988, which sets out the

Government of Canada’s multiculturalism policy and underlines that all citizens are equal and

have the freedom to preserve, enhance, and share their cultural heritage. The Act requires all federal departments, agencies and Crown corporations to ensure their programs, policies and services respond to the needs of Canadians of all backgrounds.

    • C.

      Administration of justice

      • 1.

        Role of the courts, the police and Crown prosecutors

  • 35.

    The important role played by Canadian courts in the protection of human rights in Canada

is discussed in Part II of this report.


In Canada, police services exist at federal, provincial/territorial and municipal levels.

Although these various police services report to government ministers (federal, provincial or

territorial), they enjoy a significant degree of operational independence with respect to decisions

to investigate criminal activity and the conduct of those investigations.


Individuals in Canada may lay complaints of violations by police of their human rights

before independent, administrative oversight bodies, mandated to conduct investigations and

inquiries into the conduct of the police, as well as before Canadian courts. Canada also maintains independent review bodies for the activities of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (the national police service) and the Canadian Security Intelligence Service. Governments in Canada can and have established ad hoc commissions and other independent bodies to examine specific issues or


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