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Draft Paper – Not to be cited without author’s permission

and especially smaller and poorer farmers to compete, as they tend to depress crop prices. 97

In sum, liberalization has opened markets to a flood of imports, and eliminated public sector institutions that fulfilled vital functions for small farmers, though they also

suffered from internal weaknesses should have

and been

external

political and

economic

corrected

instead of just

closing up

weaknesses.

These

shop.

The combined

result has been a net loss of markets for smaller, poorer farmers in more Just as in Mexico, rising costs and increasing uncertainty of daily life have

remote areas. led farmers to

diversify their economic activity away from their own farms, to the detriment of own productivity, production and family life. Export crop production was touted

their as a

means of inequities

raising farmer incomes, but has been thwarted by that have combined with glutted world markets.

geographical and

social

Market opening

in the

context of SAPs and the WTO

has weakened the competitive ability of

relative African

countries,

while

forcing

their

farmers into an competition with

impossible a flood of

Figure 8. Average per country value of food imports (index year, 1989=100) in Sub-Saharan Africa for 28 countries with Enhanced Structural Adjustment (ESAF) programs and 9 without, 1979-1999. Sources: IMF, 1999b (list of countries); FAOSTAT (value of imports).

cheap abroad.98

food

imports

from

170

In sum, agricultural liberalization in Africa to date, while still relatively incipient, has shown similar trends to those observed in Mexico, as imports capture an increasingly large share of domestic markets, to the detriment of local producers.

Average value of food imports (1989=100)

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

Onset of ESAF programs

ESAF (28) Non-ESAF (9)

70

60 1979

1982

1985

1988

1991

1994

1997

2000

49

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