Installing Plunger Lift Systems In Gas Wells
lifetime of the well and the amount of methane vented to the atmosphere.
An economic analysis of plunger lift installation should include the incremental boost in productivity as well as the associated extension in well life.
Even when the well pressure declines below that necessary to lift the plunger and liquids against sales line back pressure, a plunger is more efficient in removing liquids with the well vented to the atmosphere than simply blowing the well without a plunger lift.
Include methane emission reductions from installing plunger lift systems in annual reports submitted as part of the Natural Gas STAR Program.
GRI—EPA, Research and Development, Methane Emissions from the Natural Gas Industry, Volume 2: Technical Report. Prepared for the Energy Information Administration, GRI 94/0257.1, June 1996.
GRI—EPA, Research and Development, Methane Emissions from the Natural Gas Industry, Volume 7: Blow and Purge Activities. Prepared for the Energy Information Administration, GRI 94/0257.24, June 1996.
Lea, J.F. Dynamic Analysis of Plunger Lift Operations. SPE Paper 10253 presented at the 56th Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, TX, October 1981.
McAllister, E.W. Pipe Line Rules of Thumb Handbook, Fourth Edition. Gulf Publishing Company, 1998 (pp. 282-284).
O’Connell T., P. Sinner, and W.R. Guice. Flexible Plungers Resolve CT, Slim Hole Problems. American Oil and Gas Reporter, Vol. 40 No. 1 (pp 82-85).
Paugh, Len, Lomak Petroleum, personal contact.
Abercrombie, B. “Plunger Lift” in The Technology of Artificial Lift Methods, Vol. 2b, by K.E. Brown. PennWell Publishing Co., 1980 (pp. 483-
Phillips, Dan and Listik, Scott. How to Optimize Production from Plunger Lift Systems. World Oil, May 1998.
Plunger Lift Systems, Inc., personal contact.
Beauregard, E., and P.L. Ferguson
. Introduction to Plunger Lift:
Applications, Advantages and Limitations. SPE Paper 21290 presented at the Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, Billings, MT, May 1982.
Schneider, T., S., and Mackey, V. Plunger Lift Benefits Bottom Line for a Southeast New Mexico Operator. SPE Paper 59705 presented at the Permian Basin Oil land Gas Recovery Conference, Midland, TX , March 2000.
Beeson, C.M., D.G. Knox, and J.H. Stoddard. Plunger Lift Correlation Equations and Nomographs. Paper 501-G presented at AIME Petroleum Branch Meeting, New Orleans, LA, October 1995.
Smith, Reid, BP, personal contact.
Tingley, Kevin, U.S. EPA Natural Gas STAR Program, personal contact.
Bracy. C.L., and S.J. Morrow. An Economic Assessment of Artificial Lift in Low Pressure, Tight Gas Sands in Ochiltree County, Texas. SPE Paper 27932 presented at the SPE Mid-Continent Gas Symposium, Amarillo, TX, May 1994.
Walls, Brad, Resource Production Company, personal contact.
Well Master Corporation, personal contact.
Christian, J., Lea, J.F., and Bishop, B. Plunger Lift Comes of Age. World Oil, November 1995.
Wellco Service Corporation, personal contact.
EVI Weatherford, personal contact.
Ferguson, Paul L., and Beauregard, E. Will Plunger Lift Work in My Well. Southwestern Petroleum Short Course, (pp. 301-310), 1988.
Fishback II, J. William, Exxon-Mobil, personal contact.
Foss, D.L., and R.B. Gaul. Plunger-Lift Performance Criteria with Operating Experience—Ventura Avenue Field. Drilling and Production Practice. American Petroleum Institute, 1965 (pp. 124- 140).
Gregg, David, Multi Products Company, personal contact.