family and friends, self-concept, and so- cial and cultural enrichment. The study found that mentored youth were less likely to engage in drug or alcohol use, resort to violence, or skip school. In addi- tion, mentored youth were more likely to improve their grades and their relation- ships with family and friends.
The Juvenile Mentoring Program (JUMP) is a Federal program administered by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delin- quency Prevention (OJJDP). As supported by JUMP, mentoring is a one-on-one rela- tionship between a pair of unrelated indi- viduals, one adult and one juvenile, which takes place on a regular basis over an ex- tended period of time. It is almost always characterized by a “special bond of mu- tual commitment” and “an emotional character of respect, loyalty, and identifi- cation” (Hamilton, 1990). Although mentoring also is a popular concept for success in the corporate world, this Bulle- tin focuses on the mentoring of children by adults.
JUMP is designed to reduce juvenile delinquency and gang participation, im- prove academic performance, and reduce school dropout rates. To achieve these purposes, JUMP brings together caring, responsible adults and at-risk young people in need of positive role models.
In the 1992 Reauthorization of the Ju- venile Justice and Delinquency Preven- tion Act of 1974, Congress added Part G—Mentoring. This was done in recogni- tion of mentoring’s potential as a tool for addressing two critical concerns in re- gard to America’s children—poor school performance and delinquent activity. Senator Frank Lautenberg and Congress- man William Goodling were the primary sponsors of this new provision. In Part G, Congress also recognized the impor- tance of school collaboration in men- toring programs, whether as a primary source or as a partner with other public or private nonprofit entities.
To date Congress has made $19 million available to fund JUMP: $4 million each year in fiscal years (FY’s) 1994, 1995, and 1996 and $7 million in FY 1997. OJJDP funded 41 separate mentoring programs under the JUMP umbrella with FY 1994 and 1995 funding. JUMP awards for FY 1996 and FY 1997 will be announced in spring 1997.
While adhering to the basic require- ments of JUMP, the grantees are using a variety of program designs. Mentors are law enforcement and fire department per- sonnel, college students, senior citizens, Federal employees, businessmen, and other private citizens. The young people are of all races and range in age from 5 to 20. Some are incarcerated or on proba- tion, some are in school, and some are dropouts. Some programs emphasize tu- toring and academic assistance, while others stress vocational counseling and training. In its first year (July 1995 to July 1996), JUMP was involved in attempting to keep more than 2,000 at-risk young people in 25 States in school and off the streets through one-to-one mentoring.
Additional FY 1995 funding for mentoring was provided through OJJDP’s SafeFutures initiative, which operates in six sites (Boston, Massachusetts; Contra Costa County, California; Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, Harlem, Montana; Imperial County, California; Seattle, Wash- ington; and St. Louis, Missouri). The SafeFutures program assists these com- munities in developing a coordinated con- tinuum of care to reduce youth violence and delinquency. Mentoring is a compo- nent of this coordinated effort in each of the SafeFutures sites.
In addition to the funding for JUMP and SafeFutures grantees, OJJDP sup- ports mentoring programs through its Formula Grants program to the States. In FY 1995, for example, Formula Grants funds in 28 States supported 91 programs that included mentoring as part or all of the program.
BB/BS is a federation of more than 500 agencies that serve children and adoles- cents. Its mission is to make a difference in the lives of young people, primarily through a professionally supported one- to-one relationship with a caring adult, and to assist them in reaching their highest potential as they grow into re- sponsible men and women by providing committed volunteers, national leader- ship, and standards of excellence. The organization’s current goals include in- creasing the number of children served; improving the effectiveness, efficiency, and impact of services to children; and achieving a greater racial and ethnic di- versity among volunteers and staff. BB/BS volunteer mentors come from all walks of life, but they share the goal of being a caring adult who can make a dif- ference in the life of a child.
For more than 90 years, the BB/BS pro- gram has paired unrelated adult volun- teers with youth from single-parent households. BB/BS does not seek to ame- liorate specific problems but to provide support to all aspects of young people’s lives. The volunteer mentor and the youth make a substantial time commit- ment, meeting for about 4 hours, two to four times a month, for at least 1 year.
Developmentally appropriate activi- ties shared by the mentor and the young person may include taking walks; attend- ing a play, movie, school activity, or sporting event; playing catch; visiting the library; washing the car; grocery