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carry out these critical functions for BB/BS at a program cost of approximately $1,000 per year per match.

The P/PV evaluation, plus its 2 years of experience with JUMP, led OJJDP to modify the project design guidelines in its 1996 JUMP solicitation to reflect the lat- est knowledge about what works—and does not work—in mentoring. Based on the P/PV study, OJJDP expanded the guideline on mentor support and training, emphasizing that the program coordina- tor should have frequent contact with parents or guardians, volunteers, and youth and should provide assistance when requested or as problems arise. This guideline also specifies the type of training mentors should receive. From its JUMP experience, OJJDP inserted a guide- line on the role of the mentor, added a caution about time limitations that may interfere with the effectiveness of college undergraduate or graduate students as mentors, suggested that parents should have a say in the selection of mentors, called for screening mechanisms to weed out volunteers who will not keep their commitments, and established minimum expectations for the time mentors should spend with youth (1 hour per week for at least 1 year).

OJJDP is required by Congress to sub- mit a report regarding the success and effectiveness of JUMP initiatives 120 days after their termination. Evaluations are critical to ensuring that mentoring pro- grams operate as designed and meet their goals in terms of both the process and the impact on youth.

To prepare for the timely initiation of evaluation activities once the grantee is chosen for the national evaluation, OJJDP directed its management evaluation con- tractor, Caliber Associates, to design an evaluation and prepare for initial data collection. The JUMP evaluation will be accomplished through a partnership among the grantees, OJJDP, and the JUMP evaluation grantee. Caliber produced a workbook containing an overview of the JUMP initiative and the national evalua- tion that defined the roles of OJJDP, the evaluator, and JUMP grantees. Caliber also pilot tested grantee administration of data collection instruments and con-

ducted followup interviews of participat- ing grantees. Once the grantee for the evaluation is selected, Caliber also will help coordinate the transition to the evaluation grantee. Selection of the evalu- ation grantee is expected to take place in spring 1997.

Although formal evaluations have not yet been implemented, the mentoring pro- grams funded under JUMP appear to be making a difference in the lives of many young people. The preliminary accom- plishments of a few of the OJJDP-funded mentoring programs are highlighted below.

The Big Brothers/Big Sisters of south- west Idaho have made 41 matches of at- risk youth and mentors in this JUMP project. According to parents and teach- ers familiar with the program, 30 percent of the youth who participated in the pro- gram showed improvement in their school attendance, 30 percent showed academic improvement, 35 percent showed improvement in their general be- havior, and 48 percent increased the fre- quency of appropriate interactions with peers. For example, a female being raised by her father was matched to a female volunteer and, after the match, scored higher in measures of grades, self- satisfaction, self-esteem, positive attitude toward others, and pride in appearance.

Project Caring Connections in New York City provides 30 youth with caring relation- ships with adult mentors from corpora- tions and the community. As an integral part of the Liberty Partnerships Program, it offers a comprehensive range of services from academic enrichment to cultural ex- periences to a safe environment in which young people can learn social skills. During afterschool hours, Project Caring Connec- tions mentors work with students one-to- one or in a group to provide academic sup- port, job shadowing (going to the mentor’s workplace), and social and cultural enrich- ment. Through the program, at-risk stu- dents may gain exposure to publishing, theater, law, art, government, and business and also do community service. This past year, some youth were able to serve as panelists on a cable news show and dis- cuss crime in their communities, curfews, and the importance of staying in school.

Big Sisters of Colorado, in Denver, matched 59 girls, mostly Hispanic, with mentors. Program activities funded by OJJDP included a Life Choices program to develop decisionmaking and academic skills; recreation, community service, and challenge course activities; a pregnancy-


prevention program; and mentor visits to the girls’ schools. None of these girls have become pregnant or had problems with alcohol or drugs since their involve- ment in the program.

Big Brothers/Big Sisters of Pensacola, Florida, is a JUMP initiative in which 26 youth from single-parent families who are at risk for juvenile delinquency, teen pregnancy, truancy, and dropping out of school are being mentored by legal pro- fessionals, members of the military, cor- porate employees, and others. The youth are actively encouraged to stay in school and meet the goals in their individualized case plans. All have had increased expo- sure to athletic, recreational, and cultural activities, and many have demonstrated improved social and academic skills. The program has also engaged youth in a 3-day Kids N Kops police mini-academy. This innovative program provides mentoring and training by police officers and educates youth about the dangers of drugs, guns, and gangs while strengthen- ing the relationship between police and at-risk youth.

The Cincinnati Youth Collaborative in Ohio matched 136 youth and volunteers in its first year in JUMP. Mentors include doctors, dentists, lawyers, judges, teach- ers, chemists, police officers, nurses, waiters, postal clerks, travel agents, and college students. Some special activities were a trip to New York City, visits to col- lege campuses, a community bowl-a- thon, job shadowing, and participation in a school beautification project. The project reports that 99 of the 136 young people have improved academically and 102 have improved socially.

The RESCUE Youth mentoring pro- gram in Los Angeles, California, was de- veloped and implemented by the Los An- geles County District Attorney’s Office, in conjunction with the Los Angeles County Fire Department, to rescue youth ages 12 to 14 at the earliest signs of at-risk be- havior. The district attorney’s staff match the students with volunteer firefighter mentors in an effort to address truancy, juvenile delinquency, and potentially se- rious criminal behavior. Through this JUMP initiative, mentors worked with 140 youth on their communication and conflict resolution skills and provided training in fire prevention and first aid.

The JUMP projects offer many success stories, including the following examples. One student, who began the 1995–96 school year as a repeat first grader,

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