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Conducting a Comprehensive Voice Assessment in Parkinson’s Disease - page 17 / 22

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ASSESSING    VOCAL    QUALITY

   Breathiness & harshness

        - often manifests in initial stages of (PD) due to muscle rigidity; inability to     

           tense folds and/or “bowing”                            

   Hoarseness / Harshness / Raspy

        - first thought related to  chronic allergies or post nasal

  Strained Strangled – result from:

        - changes in control of laryngeal muscles and respiratory system or

        -  use of compensatory  techniques to counteract negative changes

        - often first format shows abrupt onset and heavier concentration of energ y

           and reduced  Fo

  Register Variations

       – fold approximation incompatible with desired pitch level

  Pitch breaks    

      –   in voices pitched too high or low (hyper function)

   Intonation & Stress Variations   

    -  lack of vocal inflection  melody or flat uninteresting quality

Instrumentation:          Spectrogram -  records above characteristics as :

        - represented as aperiodicity or noise; increased when vocal quality is abnormal.

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