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Conducting a Comprehensive Voice Assessment in Parkinson’s Disease - page 21 / 22

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Laryngeal problems

Neuromuscular Effects

    - May affect esophageal mobility and contribute to

             1) swallowing problems (dysphagia)

             2)  gastroesophageal reflux

   - Can cause reflexive hypertonicity in the larynx possibility

      contributing further to voice impairment

 ASSESSMENT -  Bedside Evaluation

                            Videoendoscope  

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