Figure 1: University of Florida Licensing Procedures (UF, 2007).
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FROM FEDERAL LABORATORIES
The USA government conducts over $25,000,000,000 of federally-funded R&D at over 700 federal laboratories and centers with over 100,000 scientists and engineers (NAL, 2007). These facilities, often just called “federal labs”, work on a wide variety of research problems. Those of most relevance to agriculture are the facilities of the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, known as USDA-ARS. The ARS has over 8000 employees at 100 locations and conducts over a billion dollars of research (ARS, 2007).
The USA government makes an effort to encourage technology transfer from the federal labs. “These federal laboratories are looking to industry to transfer federal technologies and expertise to commercial applications that will improve the U.S. economy.” The methods of doing so are said to be: