Collective vs Individual
Game theory view
Shaping the pay-off matrix for individuals
(+ +), both benefit
(+ 0) , one benefits, neutral for other
(+ − ), one benefits while other is harmed.
(0 −) , disadvantageous to one, neutral to other.
(− − ) , both harmed by the relationship.
Individual vs collective interest: Tragedy of Commons
Cooperation (within group) through competition (between groups) as mechanism for emergence of collective (multi-level selection)
Defeating defection (meiosis)
Punishing defection (sanctions)
Overseeing the overseers – punishing non-punishers
how to modify the near-term vs long-term discount curve?
How to foster and leverage human goodwill, ‘altruism’ ?