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Columbia’s CCP: A Case Study

Officer Milton Frederick’s style is characterized by a strong commitment to education and to the effective integration of tradition with other community services. For instance, Officer Frederick, modeling his activities on earlier activities of Chief Austin, pioneered the rap sessions in Columbia schools. These sessions give youths, especially minority youths, an opportunity to “talk out” in a group their perceptions of problems they have in school and why they are having them. Although school officials were not polled on their impressions of the program, at least one principal stated his belief that the talks significantly reduce teacher-student conflict. Moreover, Officer Freder- ick is now expanding his activities to three other schools at the insistence of school administrators (Both Cruz and Sloan do school rap sessions but they are more of a signature effort for Frederick). Yvonne Manley, a local public housing manager, commented on the second characteristic quality of Officer Frederick’s work. She pointed out that he provided better law enforcement services (including follow-up after the crime is committed), along with better access to social and other services. Manley reported that these goals, par- ticularly as they were carried out from a substation in public housing, vitally supports her own goal of making the residents of public housing both good citizens and an integral part of the community. Officer Frederick is also in- volved in a wide range of other activities which exemplify his commitments: organizing boys and girls groups, dealing with community problems such as abandoned housing, obtaining school bus service for young children who were exposed to traffic hazards, counseling elementary students with school prob- lems, and, creating a summer intern program for youths.

Officer John Sloan describes the “John Sloan” technique as using informal community service and mediation to deal with youth and youth problems. From his point of view, a mobilizer’s job is not to transfer problems from one housing area to another, but rather to solve problems. Yet he can be tough. As he put it, “At first, I had to establish who’s the sheriff in town.” Officer Sloan, athletic himself, is involved in developing a myriad of sports activities for youths in his area. Additionally, Officer Sloan has been approved as a substitute teacher in Richland, sent reference letters to schools and potential employees for community volunteers, helped citizens influence police re- sponse to calls for service, oversaw two football teams and their cheerleaders, worked with graduate students to develop a community resource book, coun- seled students, and developed an address book for the Waverly Neighborhood Organization.

Angel Cruz’s special focus and competence is community organization, and through these organizing activities, has developed a broad range of commu- nity resources—including a neighborhood legal clinic. It is propitious that community organizing is his special skill: Officer Cruz’s area is, by far, the largest geographical area targeted for the CCP implementation, and by all accounts, he has been spread too thin. He is now addressing this issue by de- veloping a cadre of volunteers who will help him deal with problems in vari-



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