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Columbia’s CCP: A Case Study

police were stationed in the area); increased and improved sources of infor- mation; and, improved attitudes of police and citizens toward each other.1

Over time a total of eight substations were created, most with a concern for

public housing, but not exclusively so.

Moreover, with funds from the

Eisenhower Foundation, a police Koban was established in a public housing development in 1994. A Koban is a Japanese term for a local police substa- tion that is highly visible and accessible to citizens. Although the Koban as it operates in Japan is solely a police facility, Columbia’s Koban is staffed by two police officers and an Urban League program director. It also provides a part-time base for the Community Block Club, the Columbia Housing Authority, a social worker, and Officer John Sloan, a community mobilizer (see below).

These moves were part of a larger effort to decentralize the CPD and devolve

power to lower levels of the organization.

Prior to 1993, top command con-

sisted of a chief and five captains (one a lead captain). was promoted to major and one captain position was cumbent retired, leaving three captains—the current 1994, the chief made further organizational changes.

In 1993, one captain dropped after the in- level. In September Previously, the CPD

was

divided

into

two

geographical

areas

(north

and

south),

an

administrative

bureau, and an investigative bureau. The new organization divided the into three areas (north, south, and metro) and each area was divided into

city two

districts, with substation headquarters. Since the administrative and tigative bureaus were eliminated, personnel were transferred. School

inves- cross-

ing guards were transferred from investigators were transferred to

the administrative bureau to districts, ten districts, crime analysis was broadened to

include local analysis from administration to

in districts, and the districts.

ten

police

officers

were

transferred

Community Context

Columbia is a “well organized” city, with virtually every neighborhood being organized. Another notable characteristic of this city’s organization is that even many middle class neighborhoods are organized. Organizing middle- class areas has been a special priority for the Community Development De- partment. Not only have government officials wanted representation from all neighborhoods, but officials also believe that middle-class citizens bring backgrounds and skills to neighborhood and community processes that can both help and be learned by residents of poorer neighborhoods. Although they are in transition, the three CCP neighborhoods—Eau Claire, Rosewood, and Waverly—are particularly well organized.

1 E. T. Young, “Columbia’s Community Policing Program in Public Housing,” Unpublished,

undated manuscript.

BOTEC Analysis Corporation

5

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