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Social embedding as a solution to a control problem? Evidence from Vietnamese small business* - page 18 / 52





18 / 52

Sampling, data collection, and the sample

We have a multi-stage cluster sample of 447 male and female-owned businesses with

at least one employee outside the immediate family in rural and urban areas of North and

South Vietnam. The heart of the data is detailed rosters of potential and actual employees

and the activities undertaken in the enterprise facilities, such as child care, meals, recreation,

and homework. Urban and rural sites in Hanoi, Ha Tay Province, Ho Chi Minh City, and

Can Tho Province were selected. Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City are the largest cities in the

North and South, respectively. Ha Tay Province borders Hanoi to the southwest and is part

of the Northern Delta. Can Tho Province is located approximately 170 km south of Ho Chi

Minh City and is part of the Southern Delta. Each area contains urban and rural locations.5

Appendix Table One provides more detailed information on the location of the sampled


The enterprise owner was our primary informant. In most cases, the enterprise

owners were eager to speak to the interviewers. However, 29 business owners refused to be

interviewed even after all possible explanation and encouragement. Refusals occurred most

frequently among the Chinese-Vietnamese entrepreneurs in the urban areas of Ho Chi Minh

City (13) and Can Tho Town (11). In Hanoi and Ha Tay there were five total refusals. In

addition, there were five cases in which the interview was not successfully completed. All

5 In Ha Noi, Van Chung and O cho Dua (Hang Bot) wards in Dong Da District (downtown) were chosen as urban sites. Dai Mo Village, Tay Mo Village and Me Tri Village in Tu Liem District (15 km from the center) were chosen as the rural sites. In adjoining Ha Tay Province, Quang Trung Ward in Ha Dong Town (12 km from Hanoi) was chosen as the urban site. Van Phuc Village (on the outskirts of Ha Dong and 15 km from Hanoi. was the rural site. In Ho Chi Minh City, Wards 1, 2, and 3 in District 4 (downtown) were the urban sites. Tan Thoi Nhi Village and Xuan Thoi Son Village in Hoc Mon District (20 km from the center) were the rural sites. In Can Tho Province, An Lac, Tan Phu, An Phu, and Xuan Khanh wards in Can Tho Town were the urban sites while Cai Rang Village in Chau Thanh District (7 km from Can Tho Town) was the rural site.


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