successfully completed an interview, they were sent out to perform solo interviews. A group
session was held after each day of interviewing to discuss data collection and reporting
issues. The first interviews usually lasted longer than one hour – in a few cases almost two
hours. Subsequent interviews proceeded more smoothly and the average interview lasted 40-
45 minutes. Traveling, searching, and waiting time averaged approximately 30-40 minutes
per completed interview.
After completing each interview, the responses were checked for completeness and
clarity. The responses were later double-checked by the field supervisor (one of the
instructors). In approximately 20-25 cases, the business owner needed to be re-interviewed.
Five of these could not be successfully completed (noted above) and were dropped from the
Our survey instrument included rosters of household and extended family members,
of employees, and of business partners so that we can compare potential and actual exchange
partners. We provide background information on the sampled businesses and on the owners
and their spouses. The bulk of our analysis centers on the external and internal relationships
of the businesses.
Table One shows summary information on the basic characteristics of the sampled
businesses. All but one of the 447 sampled businesses were private sector firms; the
remaining firm was a state-owned enterprise. Almost all businesses were sole ownerships.
Given the history of cooperatives in Vietnam, we had expected to find a higher level of co-
ownership but less than five percent of the sampled businesses had a co-owner; more than
half of the 20 co-owners were immediate family members (often the spouse). Businesses